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Crop rotations in small (private) farms

Crop rotations in small (private) farms differ somewhat from traditional crop rotations by virtue of their specificity, although in general the principles of their construction remain the same. The schemes of alternation, types and species of crop rotations in peasant farms are determined by the area of arable land, specialization, soil and climatic conditions, technical and resource capacities, market conditions and other conditions.

As a rule, the area of fields in small (private) farms is small – up to 100 hectares. They introduce one crop rotation of narrow specialization and short turnover. In the case of field specialization, field crop rotation is introduced, in the case of livestock specialization – forage crop rotation, in the case of vegetable specialization – special vegetable crop rotation.

Examples of crop rotations in small (private) farms

Private farms mainly specialize in crop production. Among the main crops they cultivate cereals, forage crops and potatoes. The following crop rotations are common among such farms:

  • 1 – perennial grasses, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – barley with undersowing of perennial grasses;
  • 1 – annual grasses, 2 – spring cereals or winter crops, 3 – potatoes or root crops;
  • 1 – lupine for silage and green mass; 2 – winter rye; 3 – potatoes;
  • 1 – clover, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – spring cereals, 4 – legumes and groats, 5 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover;
  • 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – vegetables, potatoes or root crops, 4 – spring cereals with a undersowing of perennial grasses.

In private farms of cereal and livestock specialization crop rotations are used:

  • 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – winter cereals, 4 – silage, 5 – spring cereals, 6 – annual grasses with undersowing of perennial grasses;
  • 1 – perennial grasses, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – potatoes, root crops, 4 – spring cereals, 5 – annual grasses, 6 – silage grasses, 7 – spring cereals with undersowing of perennial grasses;
  • 1 – lupine for silage, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – potatoes, silage, 4 – lupine for seed, 5 – spring cereals;
  • 1 – annual grasses, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – root crops, potatoes, 4 – corn for silage, 5 – spring cereals.

For the production of juicy forages alternation schemes are used:

  • 1 – forage beets, 2 – potatoes, 3 – corn for green fodder or silage, 4 – potatoes;
  • 1 – winter cereals, 2 – forage beet, 3 – potatoes, 4 – corn for green fodder or silage.

Sources

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Farming and crop production. Edited by V.S. Niklyaev. – Moscow: Bylina, 2000. – 555 с.