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Farming system

Farming system is a complex of agrotechnical, reclamation, organizational and economic measures aimed at rational and efficient use of land and other resources, reproduction of soil fertility in order to obtain maximum and sustainable yields of crops.

Used land means arable land, as well as land which may be used for agricultural purposes: meadow and pasture land, swamped land and land overgrown with tree and shrub vegetation, disturbed land which is subject to recultivation.

Modern agriculture is a complex multi-component system, the individual components of which are in relationship with each other and the natural environment.

Development of the teaching of farming systems in Russia

Main article: Farming systems: The development of the teaching of farming systems in Russia

The teaching of farming systems in Russia emerged in the second half of the 18th century thanks to the works of agricultural scientists A.T. Bolotov, I.M. Komov, V.A. Levshin and agricultural practitioners of the early 19th century – D.M. Poltoratsky, I.I. Samarin.

During the period of feudal reform of land ownership, serfdom of peasants and communal land tenure the fallow system of agriculture with the usual three-field cereal crop rotation was widespread.

The teaching was developed in XIX century in the works of M.G. Pavlov, A.V. Sovetov, A.N. Engelhardt, A.P. Ludogovsky, I.A. Stebut, etc.

In the Soviet period, a great contribution to the science of agriculture was made by D.N. Pryanishnikov, V.R. Williams and other Soviet scientists.

Types of farming systems

Main article: Farming systems: Types of farming systems

Farming systems are divided into:

  • primitive:
    • slash-and-burn;
    • forest-grassland;
    • fallow;
    • swidden;
  • extensive:
    • fallow;
    • multi-field grassland;
  • transitional:
    • improved cereal;
    • grass-field;
  • intensive:
    • cereal-grass-row;
    • industrial-plant (row crop);
  • zonal;
  • alternative.

Agrolandscape farming

Agrolandscape, or adaptive-landscape, farming is a farming system adapted to local landscapes that meets the requirements of environmental safety, rational land use and soil fertility reproduction, obtaining high and sustainable yields.

Agrolandscape system of farming exists only at the level of agricultural enterprise (farm). General distinctive features of landscape systems of enterprises in the region can be formulated for the district, region.

Landscape is a relatively homogeneous section of the geographical shell of the land, isolated in the course of its evolution and distinguished by its structure, the nature of the relationship and interaction between components. Landscapes that have been developed by agricultural production are called agrolandscape. In the process of agricultural use, the natural landscape is not changed to its core, but only partially transformed.

Agrolandscape is a natural and productive territorial complex of agricultural purposes, functioning as a natural and anthropogenic resource-reproducing and environment-forming geo-ecosystem.

Until recently, in the development of farming systems the main task was to achieve a given value of crop yields by meeting the biological needs of crops. Modern farming systems, in addition to achieving the goal of maximum production, are required to make the best possible balanced use of the resource potential without harming the environment. In order to realize this goal, agrolandscape farming should represent an agrolandscape management system based on the laws of natural systems functioning.

The development of agrolandscape farming systems is based on the following principles:

  • zonality,
  • adaptability of crops,
  • adaptation of cultivation technologies to terrain conditions,
  • integrity of the functioning of elements and parts of the system as a whole,
  • optimization,
  • normativity, i.e. dosage of intensification factors,
  • environmental orientation,
  • socio-economic expediency,
  • environmental safety,
  • aesthetic attractiveness.

In practice, this is achieved by rational transformation of land, the selection of crops and improving the structure of cultivated areas adapted to local soil and climatic and hydrogeological conditions, placement of agricultural crops, taking into account mutual influences in agricultural systems, the rational use of natural forage lands, the optimal allocation of agricultural land for other types, such as forest plantations, hydrotechnical structures.

When developing agrolandscape farming systems, priority should be given to the landscape morpho-genetic structure of the territory over administrative and economic boundaries. The establishment of agro-landscape boundaries should be carried out after the environmental organization of the agrolandscape. Therefore, the development of agrolandscape systems requires:

  • classification, mapping and typification of agrolandscapes;
  • analysis of the potential of natural and anthropogenic resources;
  • scheme of the intensity of material and energy flows, taking into account the
  • conjugation of cascade landscape-geochemical systems;
  • monitoring;
  • method of ecological and economic evaluation of agrolandscape systems.

Since the agrolandscape farming system is developed for a specific territory, in the process of its design it is necessary to use unified taxonomic units of the agrolandscape that meet the requirements of:

  • clarity of allocated boundaries;
  • unified functioning of the system of agrolandscape elements;
  • ensuring assessment and control of the functioning regime.

These requirements are well met by elementary watersheds (gully, valley, ravine, etc.), within the boundaries of which the resource potential is evaluated and the ways of rational land use of the territory are determined.

The methodological basis for designing agrolandscape farming systems is the systematic approach and modeling. Given that the development of a farming system for a particular taxonomic unit of agrolandscape is a complex process, the basic model of the system should be considered from the position of the structure model and the model of functional properties. The basic model includes models of individual elements of the farming system, models of regimes and processes occurring in agrolandscapes, as well as models of relationships, uniting private models into one whole.

The essence of modern farming systems

The essence of the farming system as a scientifically grounded agro-ecological-economic complex is determined by the yield considered as a result of complex interaction between soil (fertility), plants, climate, agro-productive activities of human in a certain territory in time. Therefore, the main task of the farming system is to obtain maximum, stable yields with high quality products.

This task can be achieved only through the most complete use of solar energy received per unit area in a given locality. The maximum possible absorption of solar energy is determined by fertility, i.e. the availability and abundance of terrestrial plant life factors.

All modern farming systems must be normative and comprehensive in content. System normativity is a technological model of soil fertility, which takes into account biological characteristics of crops and their yield levels, based on the dosage of intensification factors. The input parameters of the model are:

  • arable layer thickness, cm;
  • content of water-retaining macroaggregates, %;
  • soil density, g/cm3;
  • humus content, %;
  • maximum permissible number of weeds per 1 m2;
  • phosphorus P2O5 and potassium K2O content, mg/100 g of soil;
  • acidity.

Reproduction of soil fertility is carried out by agrotechnical and reclamation measures on a normative basis using calculation and balance methods of fertility and yield programming.

For all the importance of economic and social relations in agriculture, they are still secondary in relation to the created yield. The biological nature of the crop, its quantity and quality are primary. The priority of biological and technological principles determines the agronomic essence and theoretical basis of farming systems. The amount of bound solar energy in the crop is the key indicator and condition of highly effective farming.

Influence of natural factors on bioproduction process is reflected in climate, soil, and plant. Each natural zone is characterized by certain amounts of physiologically active radiation, heat and atmospheric precipitation, their distribution during the year, the level of potential soil fertility, the species composition of crops and the nature of the created product. These are the primary objective conditions that limit the amount and quality of agricultural production.

Secondary and subjective factors influencing the bioproductive process and the value of the agricultural product include production technology, economic, social, and even historical conditions.

The connection between the primary and secondary factors is achieved through the cultivated plant, the yield of which is determined by the functioning of the farming system as a whole.

Thus, the theoretical basis of farming systems is the regulation of the production process in agrocenoses and soil fertility reproduction. The plant and soil are considered as one whole, as the main factor of farming sustainability. This unity is achieved through maximum adaptation to the specific conditions of the agrolandscape with normative ecological requirements. The essence of adaptation lies in creating agro-ecological conditions and consistent optimization of limiting factors that meet the biological and agrotechnical requirements of cultivated plants.

With regard to the conditions of a particular enterprise, the farming system should solve the following tasks:

  • provide rational use of bioclimatic potential, land, plant, water, technical, labor and other resources;
  • to create optimal conditions for the sustainable development and high productivity of crop production and other specializations of the enterprise in order to obtain the maximum quantity of quality products with minimum labor and resource inputs;
  • to increase soil fertility;
  • prevent the risks of erosion processes and environmental pollution.

Developing a farming system

When developing a farming system for the enterprise, the following requirements are taken into account:

  1. Intensity of farming. It is determined by the level of application of mechanization and automation, land reclamation, and chemicalization. To assess the effectiveness of intensification, indicators of growth of crop yields and productivity of forage lands, growth of labor productivity, reduction of costs per unit of production may be used.
  2. Cultivation technology should be soil-protective and energy-saving.
  3. Soil-protective, soil-improving and nature-protecting orientation. 
  4. Extended reproduction of soil fertility through the use of fertilizers, grass sowing, intermediate crops, soil improvement methods of tillage, melioration. For this differentiated models of soil fertility are envisaged, taking into account soil type, planned crop yields, level of intensification.
  5. Economic feasibility. For the system of agriculture its place and importance in the general system of farming, specialization, correlation and combination with other areas, resource potential are determined.

Farming system is not uniform, it must be dynamic, i.e. constantly improving and adapting to external conditions.

Components of farming systems

The farming system as a whole consists of interrelated parts:

  • organization of the territory of land use,
  • organization of crop rotations,
  • tillage systems,
  • fertilizer systems,
  • plant protection systems,
  • crops cultivation technologies,
  • seed growing system,
  • reclamation measures,
  • systems of control over the environmental situation,
  • machinery system.

Organization of the land use territory of the farm

Scientifically justified organization of the land territory of an agricultural enterprise with all its land, water bodies, road network, industrial buildings and other facilities is the organizational and technological basis that unites all components of the agricultural system into a whole.

Organization of the territory of land use is developed on the basis of the project of intrafarm land management in which it is specified:

  • the area of land use,
  • number of separate land plots,
  • availability of agricultural land,
  • location of each land plot and crop rotation,
  • characterization of soil and climatic conditions and vegetation cover,
  • calculate bioclimatic potential and on its basis determine the possibility of cultivation of various crops and their potential yields;
  • existing and planned specialization,
  • the existing and planned specialization, and the organizational and production structure of the farm,
  • the scale and pace of development of production,
  • the average annual need for feed.

Separate attention is paid to expansion of arable area at the expense of low-productive forage lands and other lands, elimination of shallow contour and disconnection of lands. If there are meliorated lands, measures on intensification of these lands and programmed cultivation of high yields are determined.

Forms of land area organization can be rectangular, contour, contour-lane, contour-meliorative.

Organization of crop rotations

In different natural zones of Russia, the ratio of areas of prime land can vary significantly. Thus, in the southern regions the share of ploughed land reaches 80-90%, in the more northern regions up to 60-70% can account for forest and natural forage lands. Depending on the areas of arable and natural forage lands and the specialization of the agricultural enterprise the structure of the sown area and the system of crop rotations are developed.

Construction of crop rotations system is based on agroecological grouping of lands and structure of sown area. The minimum number of crop rotations must be equal to the number of agroecological groups of lands, and the maximum number is determined by technological expediency and economic efficiency. Land plots with limited suitability are used according to individual plan outside of crop rotation.

In the farming system the system of crop rotations must be the most optimal for each group of lands, ensuring ecological safety of the agrolandscape.

The system of crop rotations is developed on the basis of:

  • rational structure of sown areas;
  • adopted specialization,
  • soil and climatic conditions,
  • market conditions,
  • fodder requirements,
  • material and technical resources,
  • production technology,
  • the level of economic development of the enterprise.

The system of crop rotations should create optimal conditions for the organization of labor and the use of machinery.

Tillage system

Like the entire farming system, tillage should be soil-protective.

The construction of tillage system should be based on the requirements:

  1. Methods and technologies of tillage are determined by soil and climatic conditions, agrolandscape, biological features of crops, the degree of risk of erosion processes, hydrological conditions, and phytosanitary state of soil.
  2. Different-depth tillage of the soil in the rotation, which provides a reasonable alternation of the methods of mouldboard, non-moldboard, deep and surface tillage.
  3. Minimization of tillage, which is achieved by a good state of soil cultivation.
  4. Ecological, economic and soil-protective expediency of the applied methods and technologies of tillage, based on the balance of energy costs, their impact on the yield and fertility.

The system of tillage is developed for each crop rotation. The developed system of tillage is improved in the course of its use in the direction of its adaptation to the geomorphological and lithological conditions of the agricultural landscape.

Fertilizer system

Main article: Fertilizer system

Fertilizer system is a complex of agronomic and organizational measures, providing the use of organic and mineral fertilizers to increase yield and its quality, as well as the reproduction of soil fertility.

Fertilizer system, first, includes the development and implementation of organizational and economic measures for the production, procurement, purchase, transportation and storage of fertilizers. Including the identification of resources for local production of fertilizers, their procurement and storage, identification of the need for different types of fertilizers, reclamation materials, industrial mineral fertilizers, organization of their delivery, storage and application to the soil, the need to mix, fertilizer application in given proportions, taking into account fertility, crop requirements and agricultural engineering.

Secondly, the fertilizer system is a rational distribution of fertilizers in crop rotations and within them, the definition of optimum doses, timing and methods of use. This part of the fertilizer system is developed taking into account local soil and climate conditions and economic opportunities of the farm.

Fertilizer system in the crop rotation is a component of the fertilizer system, which is based on plans for the use of organic and mineral fertilizers, lime for crops in the rotation. These plans determine the doses, timing and methods of application for certain crops, taking into account the planned yields, biological characteristics of crops and their alternation, cultivation technology, soil, climatic and hydrological conditions, the properties of fertilizers, economic conditions of the enterprise.

In conditions of risk of water erosion development fertilizer system should take into account diversity of relief elements, their morphological characteristics, degree of soil washing out, runoff, lithological conditions.

Along with the landscape approach to the distribution of fertilizers take into account the effectiveness of their interaction with other elements of the farming system – tillage, crop rotation, timing and seeding rates. For example, nitrogen fertilizers can act as a decisive factor in minimizing tillage, the use of straw as mulch, reducing the proportion of bare fallow in the structure of sowing areas, deepening specialization. Under conditions of phosphorus deficit, the efficiency of bare fallow decreases, the loss of nitrogen from the soil due to its incomplete use by plants increases. Application of fertilizers is possible to regulate the rate of growth and development of plants at different stages of organogenesis, to accelerate or slow maturation, taking into account the timing of sowing and the formation of plant nutrition area using different methods and rates of sowing.

Row fertilizer accelerates the growth of the secondary root system of cereal crops, which often determines the formation of yields. Fertilizers can prevent or mitigate the effects of various stress factors on plants, improve adaptability to adverse conditions, drought and frost resistance.

Fertilizers influence plant resistance to diseases. For example, phosphate fertilizers promote root system development, increase disease resistance and resistance to pathogens. Potassium fertilizers help thicken cell walls, increase the strength of mechanical tissues, and inhibit the development of fungal diseases. Nitrogen fertilizers, on the contrary, stimulate the development of diseases.

The fertilizer system in the rotation depends on the agrochemical background of the soil and the requirements of crops. At the first stage of its development task is to regulate the nutrition of plants in the least balanced sections, such as optimization of phosphorus nutrition of cereals after fallow, nitrogen – in the background without plowing and minimum tillage, especially when leaving straw; top dressing of winter crops in spring and perennial grasses, starter row fertilization, etc. When achieving the necessary level of provision of cultivated land with mineral fertilizers, required for the development of anti-erosion measures, crop rotations with a certain ratio of crops, fallows, that is, optimization of farming systems. Further use of fertilizers should be based on the calculation of the planned yields of crops. To determine the maximum dose of fertilizers, if necessary, guided by the maximum profit, taking into account environmental constraints. Setting the optimum doses, depending on soil and climatic conditions and resource availability, it should be borne in mind that an excessive concentration of fertilizers on individual fields is not rational, as well as their dispersion over the fields.

Application of organic and mineral fertilizers in optimal doses is most effective.

Environmental negative effects are particularly acute in the production of vegetable crops, characterized by the greatest ability to accumulate nitrates and other residual chemicals. Therefore, vegetable production needs biologicalization, i.e. increasing the share of organic fertilizers in the fertilizer system, perennial grasses in crop rotations, the use of biological plant protection agents.

Excessive concentration of livestock waste poses a great ecological hazard. The main way of their use is the fertilization of perennial grasses.

Uneven application of organic and mineral fertilizers is a serious economic and environmental problem. Uneven application leads to uneven stem density in the field, uneven ripening, reduced product quality, increased leaching of nutrients. Losses from infiltration increase with increasing doses of fertilizers. According to T.N. Kulakovskaya, in Belarus in years with excessive moisture the loss of nitrogen from leaching on sandy soils reaches 60 kg/ha, on loamy sands – 20-25 kg/ha, on loamy – 10 kg/ha. In years with normal moisture these figures are reduced by about 2 times. Nitrogen losses in the form of gaseous compounds are 10-30% of the applied nitrogen (Mineev, 1984).

To prevent nitrogen losses, and consequently to reduce irrational costs, it is necessary to optimize the doses, forms and timing of nitrogen fertilizers for each crop of the crop rotation, to distribute and incorporate them evenly in the soil.

Intensification of farming leads to an increasing role of soil organic matter. In modern farming it determines soil buffering capacity, absorption capacity, biological activity, transformation and inactivation of pesticides and other agrochemicals, the possibility of using minimum tillage and reducing energy costs, increases the stability of farming in adverse weather conditions.

According to generalized data, to maintain a deficit-free balance of humus in the arable layer of various soils of Russia it is necessary to make on average 6.5 t of standard manure per 1 ha, in the Central Black Earth zone – 7.0 t/ha, in the Central region – 5.0 t/ha, Volgo-Vyatsky – 11.6 t/ha, North Caucasus – 5.8 t/ha

Plant protection system

Plant protection system is a system of management and regulation of phytosanitary potential of crops and soil. The number of pests and weeds is regulated by a set of interrelated organizational, agrotechnical, biological and chemical measures.

The rational system of plant protection is based on the accounting of the number of pests and weeds, and the forecast of their distribution. The forecast serves as the basis for planning the scope of work, determines the need for agrotechnical, chemical, biological means, machinery, material and labor costs.

The purpose of the plant protection system is to preserve harvests by means of regulatory mechanisms within agroecosystems to maintain the number of pests and weeds at the level of ecological and economic thresholds of harmfulness.

Under modern agro-landscape farming systems, biological and cultural methods of plant protection gain leading importance. Scientific validity of all parts of the farming system allows you to build the most effective and economically and environmentally rational system of plant protection.

Organizational and economic (cultural) measures of plant protection include: crop rotations, use of quality seeds, zoned varieties resistant to diseases and pests, compliance with optimal timing and quality of technological methods, preventive measures.

Agrotechnical methods of plant protection, as a rule, are used in conjunction with the system of tillage: during the pre-sowing, post-sowing and post-harvest tillage. 

Chemical plant protection measures include seed dressing, spraying of soil and crops with pesticides or herbicides, disinfection of storages and currents, etc. The use of chemical methods requires accurate compliance with the timing, doses and methods of application of preparations, requirements for environmental protection and safe work practices. The role of chemical methods increases with increasing specialization of agricultural production and the level of intensification. Rejection of their use leads to a significant decrease in the effectiveness of fertilizers and land reclamation, however, chemical methods should be considered as an exceptional method when others cannot bring sufficient results.

Biological method of pest and weed plant population control involves maintaining the density of natural entomophages with biological preparations, introduction of parasites or predators, artificial increase in the number of entomophages, use of entomopathogens, ferromones, insect hormones, repellents, attractants, release of sterile insects, etc.

Proper choice of biological, agrotechnical, chemical and other means of plant protection determines the effectiveness of the plant protection system.

Crop cultivation technologies

Crop cultivation technology is a technological complex of practices aimed at creating optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants. It includes techniques performed from the moment of clearing the field by the predecessor to the harvesting. Techniques include basic and pre-sowing tillage, fertilizing, preparation of seeds for sowing, seeding, care of crops.

Cultivation technologies are developed taking into account agro-ecological requirements of crops and varieties to growing conditions, as a consistent overcoming of factors limiting the yield and quality of products and creation of optimal conditions for specific conditions of the enterprise (material and technical resources, economic and environmental). Like other elements of the farming system, cultivation technologies must be closely linked with other elements.

Intensive cultivation technologies presuppose a fundamentally different set of technical, agrochemical, and biological means from traditional ones. These technologies involve not only the creation of an optimal level of mineral nutrition of plants and an appropriate system of plant protection, but also the quality of all field work. Application of intensive technologies implies control over the content of pesticide residues in the soil and grown agricultural products.

The system of use of natural forage lands

System of use of natural forage lands – a system of arrangement of hayfields and pastures, which includes measures for their rational use taking into account the needs for forage and soil protection from erosion. The activities of the system include:

  • organization of hayfield and pasture rotation,
  • care of hayfields and pastures,
  • re-creation of meadows,
  • organization of grass seed production, etc.

Seed production system

The seed production system, or the organization of on-farm seed production, includes:

  • seed production planning,
  • technologies of cultivation of field crops for seeds,
  • varietal and seed control,
  • postharvest processing,
  • seed storage,
  • seed preparation for sowing,
  • varietal changes and varietal renewal,
  • establishment of insurance and transfer (for winter crops) seed funds.

Sowing is carried out with seeds of high (not less than fifth) reproductions of the first and second classes of sowing standard.

When planning seed production, one determines the sources of seed supply, the procedure for variety change and variety renewal, the yield of conditioned seeds, the structure of sown areas, seeding rate, the creation of basic, insurance and transferable seed funds, and the material and technical support of seed production.

Technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops for seeds should be developed taking into account the fact that the high saturation with pesticides and mineral fertilizers, non-storm culture can lead to deterioration of germination and growth power of seeds and sometimes to decrease the quality of the harvest.

Cultivation of high-quality seeds of released varieties and hybrids involves varietal control, the purpose of which is to determine the conformity of crops to the variety, the degree of varietal purity (typicality) and suitability of the crop as a whole for seed. The main method of varietal control is field testing, which determines the varietal purity, typicality, weediness of crops by difficult to separate cultural and weed plants, establish the presence of quarantine, noxious and poisonous weeds, pests and diseases, control the implementation of requirements of growing technology and maintaining varietal documentation.

Quality control of seeds is subdivided into on-farm and state. On-farm control is carried out during harvesting, when seeds come to the field, during postharvest handling and storage. The state control is carried out by the State Seed Control Service.

For the purposes of state seed control, samples of seeds are taken at the beginning of storage and before sowing and submitted to the regional seed control inspectorates to confirm their quality.

Variety change consists in replacing old low-yielding and low-quality varieties with new ones. Varietal renewal is the periodic replacement of seeds of low reproductive varieties already involved in production with higher reproductive varieties. The basis for renewal is elite. The frequency of varietal renewal is once every 4-6 years.

There should be no varietal renewal during the planned introduction of new varieties into production. The creation of a new variety should take place over a period during which the deterioration of variety qualities and yield properties of the old variety reaches the threshold of economic importance. However, in practice, permanent varietal change in 4-5 years is not yet possible.

Ameliorative measures

Ameliorative measures are aimed at radical improvement of land and microclimate of lands. They include: irrigation, drainage, arrangement of reservoirs, chemical melioration, cultural and technical works, land reclamation, meliorative tillage, agro-forest-melioration, etc.

Irrigation regulates water supply to plants and promotes creation of favorable water, nutrient, air, heat, salt regimes of soil. Irrigation systems can be permanent (regularly operating), temporary, created for irrigation during the season and once operating, or liman irrigation, for example, for the retention of melt water.

Special types of irrigation include fertilizer irrigation, warming irrigation, which uses waste water from thermal stations, geysers to irrigate fields, greenhouses, washing water to dissolve and wash out harmful salts from the root layer of soil.

Dewatering of over-watered and waterlogged lands allows to regulate water-air regime of root layer. The main methods of dewatering are:

  • acceleration of surface and subsurface runoff on watershed boundaries and gentle slopes with heavy soils and atmospheric type of water supply;
  • interception of surface and ground water entering the drainage area;
  • lowering of groundwater table with high level of its standing;
  • warming reclamation in permafrost conditions, where over-watering leads to deep freezing of top-soil soils;
  • two-way dewatering and humidifying regulation of soil moisture.

The main methods of drainage:

  • single channels and systematic open network on permeable soils;
  • open canals or closed horizontal drainage in combination with agromeliorative measures on poorly water permeable mineral soils;
  • closed drainage of low thickness peatlands, underlain by poorly permeable soils and used for arable land;
  • preliminary drainage of thick (more than 1.5-2 m) peatlands by open channels and mole drainage with subsequent laying of closed drainage after peat settling;
  • drainage of peatlands by open channels in combination with sparse closed drainage when using them for arable land and pastures.

Agro-forest-meliorative measures are aimed at soil protection from erosion processes, improvement of microclimate and water regime. They include creation of field-protecting, water-regulating, pasture-protecting forest belts, “green zones” on pastures, forest belts on irrigated areas, afforestation of ravines, gullies, sands, banks of rivers and reservoirs, steep eroded slopes.

Environmental control system

The system of environmental control includes monitoring the state of soil cover, soil fertility of agrolandscapes, surface and ground water, perennial vegetation, natural nesting places of birds and insects, accumulation of nitrates and pesticides in products and environmental objects.

On erosion-prone and eroded lands, a soil-protective set of measures is provided: soil-protective crop rotations and methods of tillage, ameliorative measures. 

Environmental protection measures are developed for each element of the farming system.

System of machines

The machine system should strive to provide comprehensive mechanization of cultivation and harvesting of crops, replacement of manual labor in all technological operations with mechanized. Complexes of machines should be formed in accordance with the technology of crops cultivation in relation to specific soil and climatic conditions.

The machinery system should provide for an increase in the power capacity of tractors, an increase in the working speed and working width of units, the use of universal and combined machines, progressive forms of organization of field work and improvement of the qualifications of specialists.

Labor organization

Organization of labor in crop production consists in:

  • organization of labor collectives and assignment of crop rotations, fields and natural forage lands, labor processes;
  • establishment of work and rest regimes, labor remuneration.

Production collectives are formed in accordance with the specific economic and natural conditions of the enterprise. There are various modern forms and approaches in management and organization of labor, based on domestic or foreign experience. The effectiveness of forms of labor organization is determined by a wide range of factors.

Zonal features of farming systems

There are several natural-climatic zones in Russia, and the farming systems in each of them have their own features. In particular, there are farming systems:

  • Non-Black Earth (taiga-forest) zone;
  • Central Black Earth zone;
  • Volga region;
  • Northern Caucasus;
  • steppe and forest-steppe regions of Siberia;
  • Far East.

Farming systems of irrigated regions are considered separately.

Sources

Farming. Textbook for universities / G.I. Bazdyrev, V.G. Loshakov, A.I. Puponin et al. – Moscow: Publishing House “Kolos”, 2000. – 551 с.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Farming and crop production. Edited by V.S. Niklyaev. – Moscow: Bylina, 2000. – 555 с.

Fundamentals of Agronomy: Tutorial/Y.V. Evtefeev, G.M. Kazantsev. – M.: FORUM, 2013. – 368 p.: ill.