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Field crop rotations

Field crop rotations are the most universal type of crop rotations, the main task of which is the effective use of arable land with constant reproduction of soil fertility and obtaining high yields of crops.

Due to the fact that different crops have different requirements for living conditions, which in turn may differ greatly depending on the climatic zone, the universality of field crop rotations most fully meet the requirements of agricultural production under specific conditions. For example, conditions of the North Caucasus are more suitable for cultivation of winter wheat, corn, sunflower, sugar beet, while conditions of the Non-Black Soil Zone of Russia are more favorable for cultivation of potato, fiber flax.

In the European part of Russia, a large set of crops allows the introduction of crop rotations with a long rotation. For example, in the Central Black Earth zone, Kuban, South-East the rotation is 9-10 years, often reaching 11-12 years. In the Non-Black Soil Zone the rotation duration is usually 6-8 years, in the east of Russia due to the relatively small set of crops the duration of the crop rotation is usually 4-5 years.

Sections of field crop rotations

Many-field field crop rotation consists of separate sections, correlated as a predecessor-consecutive crop. The sections in the crop rotation are connected with each other.

As a rule, a section consists of 2-3 heterogeneous crops, starting with the best preceding crop and one or two following ones.

The construction of crop rotation begins with the construction of individual sections. After determining the number of crops and the total number of fields included in the cropping pattern, the most important food or industrial crops are identified, for which the best predecessors are chosen. The resulting sections become the basis of the crop rotation.

Fallow section

The fallow section of the crop rotation is primarily bare fallow. Common fallow sections:

  • fallow-winter crops-winter crops;
  • fallow-spring cereals-spring cereals;
  • fallow-winter crops-spring cereals;
  • par-winter crops;
  • fallow-spring cereals.

Cereal-fallow crop rotations are essentially different combinations of fallow sections. In the arid regions of the south-east and east of Russia, 4- and 5-field cereal-fallow crop rotations are common, including one field of bare strip fallow, 2-3 – spring wheat and one combined field with leguminous and groats crops or a field of cereal forage crops. For example, a four-field cereal-fallow crop rotation includes a cereal-fallow section with repeated sowing of wheat and a cereal-forage crops field: 1 – bare strip fallow, 2-3 – spring wheat, 4 – barley.

Cereal, leguminous and groats crops in such crop rotations account for up to 75-80% of the arable area, which is typical for cereal specialization of agricultural farms in eastern Russia, which are the suppliers of marketable spring wheat grain.

Cereal section

The basis of a cereal section is a cereal crop – winter or spring rye or wheat, barley, oats and leguminous (peas) or groats (buckwheat, millet) predecessor of a continuous crop.

Cereal sections allow building crop rotations of cereal specialization in combination with fallow sections. For example: 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – spring wheat, 4 – millet, 5 – spring wheat.

In alternation with other sections, they allow for more effective implementation of the principles of changing crops, specialization, compatibility, and others.

Row section

The main group of crops in row sections is row crops, which are predecessors of cereals, leguminous, and groats.

For example:

Combinations of fallow, row and cereal sections form a variety of cereal-fallow-row crop rotations, for example: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – cereals, 3 – row crops, 4 – cereals. In this example, half of the cereals are sown on the best predecessors. In terms of efficiency this rotation is comparable to cereal-grass-row crop rotation.

Another five-field example, with 60% of cereals is: 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – cereals, 4 – row crops, 5 – cereals. In the six-fielded rotation the share of cereals could be increased up to 2/3 (67%) due to a combination of fallow and row sections: 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – cereals, 4 – row crops, 5-6 – cereals. The rotation of this crop rotation can be lengthened by the third cereal section, for example: 1 – fallow, 2-3 – cereals, 4 – legumes or groats, 5 – cereals, 6 – row crops, 7-8 – cereals.

Due to the possibility of combining these three sections with different number of crop fields, it provides unlimited opportunities for building field crop rotations.

Depending on soil and climatic conditions different crops can be selected as the main cereal crops, for example, winter wheat is used for the Non-Black Earth, forest-steppe and steppe zones of European Russia and the North Caucasus, while spring wheat is used in eastern Russia – the Southern Urals, Western Siberia and Trans-Urals, Altai. In the Southeast, Lower and Middle Volga region, and some forest-steppe regions of the country, winter cereals are combined with spring cereal crops. In this case, winter rye or wheat is placed on a bare fallow, and spring – after row crops and winter crops. For example: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – spring wheat, 4 – row crops, 5 – spring wheat, 6 – spring cereal forage (barley or oats).

Winter barley is grown in the North Caucasus, and winter wheat and barley may account for up to 50% in 10-12-field crop rotations. With 2-3 row sections in such crop rotations, winter crops may be placed with row crops with an early harvesting date, such as corn for silage.

Grass section

In the basis of grasses section are laid perennial grasses, which are usually used for fodder and seeds for 2-3 years. In areas with sufficient moisture and on irrigated lands, they are good predecessors of winter wheat and winter rye. Clover and its mixtures with cereal grasses are the best predecessors of fiber flax.

Examples of grass sections:

  • 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – winter crops;
  • 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – flax-fibre.

Due to the effect of perennial grasses on subsequent crops, which persists for 2-3 years, grass links can have longer variants:

  • 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – winter cereals, 4 – fiber flax;
  • 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – winter cereals, 4 – spring cereals;
  • row crops can be planted 1 year after perennial grasses: 1-2 – perennial grasses, 3 – winter crops, 4 – row crops. In this case there is a transition to a row section.

Grass sections are part of cereal-grass-row crop rotations in areas with sufficient moisture.

In the south of Russia in field crop rotations alfalfa grass section is used:

  • 1-2 – alfalfa, 3 – winter wheat, 4 – spring cereal forages;
  • 1-2 – alfalfa, 3-4 – winter wheat;
  • 1 – alfalfa (non-rotation field), 2 – winter wheat.

Row crops can be planted one year after alfalfa: 1-2 – alfalfa, 3 – winter wheat, 4 – sugar beet or corn.

In Transcaucasia, in irrigated areas, grass section with alfalfa is part of lucerne crop rotations. In 7-8-field crop rotations, alfalfa is cultivated for 2-3 years, and 4-5 years of permanent crops of cotton are successfully used.

Non-rotation field of the crop rotation

A non-rotation field, also the withdrawn or emergency field, is a crop rotation field temporarily withdrawn from the rotation, which is occupied by one of the crops for several years.

The need for a non-rotation field is determined by the economic feasibility of using perennial grass crops for a long time in such a structure of cultivated areas, which allows having only one such field. For example, in the following scheme: 1 – alfalfa, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – corn, 4 – barley, 5 – clean fallow, 6 – winter wheat with alfalfa underplanting; for a six-year rotation it is necessary to plow alfalfa annually and also annually underplant it under winter wheat. However, the maximum yield of alfalfa is in the 2-3rd year of use, so plowing it in the first year is inexpedient. In addition, it leads to additional costs for alfalfa seed.

On the other hand, leaving alfalfa in the crop rotation for three years, for example, means that three fields of the crop rotation are allocated to it or half of all arable land, which in turn contradicts the structure of cropping areas, providing only 16.7% of arable land for alfalfa.

To solve this problem, a non-rotation field with alfalfa is used, which is taken out of the rotation for 2-6 years. For example, when using alfalfa for 3 years, the third year the field will be withdrawn from the rotation, and the rotation scheme for the remaining fields will look as follows: 1 – winter wheat, 2 – corn, 3 – barley, 4 – clean fallow, 5 – winter wheat. In our example, in the third year of rotation in the wheat field is seeded alfalfa, and in the next fourth year this field with alfalfa is withdrawn for three years from the rotation. While the field, which was previously taken out under the alfalfa, ploughed under the sowing of winter crops, and it is again included in the rotation. According to this scheme act with each field of the rotation every three years.

The scheme of such alternation is presented in the table. It follows that the total rotation is 18 years, consisting of three five-year rotations without alfalfa and three-year use of alfalfa in each field of the six.

Table. Rotation table of 6-field crop rotation (1 - bare fallow, 2 - winter crops with alfalfa undersowing, 3 - alfalfa, 4 - winter crops, 5 - corn, 6 - barley) with an non-rotation alfalfa field of three-year use[1]Farming. Textbook for universities / G.I. Bazdyrev, V.G. Loshakov, A.I. Puponin et al. - M.: Publishing house "Kolos", 2000. - 551 p.

Year
No. of fields and crops
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
1997
1998
1999
Alfalfa 1 year of use
Alfalfa 2 years of use
Alfalfa 3 years of use
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Corn
Barley
Fallow
Barley
Fallow
Winter crops
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops with alfalfa undersowing
Winter crops
Winter crops
Corn
2000
2001
2002
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops with alfalfa undersowing
Winter crops
Winter crops
Corn
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Alfalfa 1 year of use
Alfalfa 2 years of use
Alfalfa 3 years of use
Barley
Fallow
Winter crops
2003
2004
2005
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops
Alfalfa 1 year of use
Alfalfa 2 years of use
Alfalfa 3 years of use
Barley
Fallow
Winter crops
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops with alfalfa undersowing
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
2006
2007
2008
Corn
Barley
Fallow
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Alfalfa 1 year of use
Alfalfa 2 years of use
Alfalfa 3 years of use
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops with alfalfa undersowing
2009
2010
2011
Winter crops
Winter crops
Corn
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops with alfalfa undersowing
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Corn
Barley
Fallow
Alfalfa 1 year of use
Alfalfa 2 years of use
Alfalfa 3 years of use
2012
2013
2014
Barley
Fallow
Winter crops
Corn
Barley
Fallow
Alfalfa 1 year of use
Alfalfa 2 years of use
Alfalfa 3 years of use
Fallow
Winter crops
Winter crops
Winter crops
Winter crops
Corn
Winter crops
Corn
Barley

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Zonal peculiarities of field crop rotations (for Russia)

Non-Black Soil Zone

Cereal crop rotations

In the areas of the Non-Black Soil Zone with the expansion of sown areas for food and fodder crops, saturation of crop rotations is possible through a combination of winter and spring cereals with leguminous and cereal crops, as well as the replacement of bare fallow with seeded. For example: 1 – leguminous crops, 2 – winter wheat or rye, 3 – spring cereals with underplanting of clover, 4 – clover of the 1st year of use, 5 – winter wheat, 6 – barley, 7 – potatoes, 8 – oats. In this crop rotation, cereals and legumes account for 75% of the arable land, and each crop is in a good predecessor.

Cereal crop rotations with two fields of perennial grasses are characterized by high agrotechnical and economic qualities: 1-2 – perennial grasses of 1-2 years of use, 3 – winter wheat, 4 – spring cereals, 5 – peas, 6 – winter rye or winter wheat, 7 – spring cereals with undersowing of perennial grasses. Cereals and leguminous crops account for 71.3% of the arable area. Such crop rotation has a favorable effect on fertility and phytosanitary condition of the soil, as well as crop yields.

In cereal-grass crop rotations saturation with cereals and leguminous crops can be brought to 80% and more:

  • 1 – clover of the 1st year of use, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – spring cereals, 4 – peas, 5 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover (80%);
  • 1 – clover seeded fallow, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – spring cereals, 4 – early types of peas, 5 – winter cereals, 6 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover (83%).

Low fertility sandy and sandy loam soils, for example, in the Bryansk region, introduce the following crop rotation: 1 – lupine, 2 – winter rye, 3 – barley, 4 – peas, 5 – winter rye or wheat, 6 – corn for silage, 7 – winter rye. Cereals and leguminous plants account for 70% of the arable area.

Replacement of bare fallows with leguminous or groats crops allows saturation with cereals up to 60-65% and higher in crop rotations of agricultural enterprises in Belarus and the Baltic states.

Potato crop rotations

Potatoes in the Non-Black Soil Zone take a significant place in the structure of sown areas. The best results are obtained in farms with at least 200-300 hectares under potatoes, which creates more favorable conditions for on-farm specialization and effective use of machinery, high level of agricultural technology and organization of labor.

According to the All-Russian Institute of Potato Farming, in crop rotations that specialize in the cultivation of potatoes, it can occupy two or three fields. For example, in Moscow region, crop rotations have been introduced and adopted: 1-2 – perennial grasses of the 1-2nd year of use, 3 – winter wheat or spring cereals, 4 – early potatoes, 5 – winter rye or winter wheat, 6 – legumes + early potatoes, 7 – winter wheat, 8 – late potatoes, 9 – spring cereals with undersowing of perennial grasses. Potatoes account for 27%, cereals and legumes – 51%, perennial grasses – 22% of the arable area. This crop rotation has a positive effect on fertility and phytosanitary state of the soil.

For a higher specialization (up to 38% of the area) the following crop rotations are recommended: 1 – early potatoes, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – late potatoes, 4 – oats with undersowing of clover, 5 – 1st year clover, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – late potatoes, 8 – spring cereals. Crops are placed in this rotation on good predecessors.

High fertility soils allow increasing the potato saturation according to the following scheme of rotation: 1 – early potatoes, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – late potatoes, 4 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover, 5 – 1st year clover, 6 – early potatoes + sowing of stubble crop, 7 – late potatoes, 8 – vetch-oat mixture. In this case, up to 50% of the area is allocated to potatoes, and all crops are good predecessors.

According to the All-Russian Potato Research Institute, the yield of fodder units of crop rotation increases as the share of potatoes increases. However, the use of permanent and repeated planting of potatoes leads to a decrease in yields and the development of diseases and pests.

Short rotation potato crop rotations are also used:

  • 1 – early potatoes, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – fodder beets or silage crops;
  • 1 – early potatoes, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – potatoes, 4 – silage crops;
  • 1 – early potatoes, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – potatoes, 4 – leguminous crops.

Flax crop rotations

On highly fertile soils in agricultural enterprises specializing in the cultivation of flax, there is a need to saturate crop rotations with this crop up to 12-15%. For example, in the Smolensk region there are the following crop rotations: 1 – seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat with undersowing of clover, 3 – clover of the 1st year of use, 4 – clover of the 2nd year of use, 5 – flax, 6 – spring cereals, 7 – potatoes, 8 – spring cereals. Flax accounts for 12.5% of the arable land area.

The following crop rotations are used in the Tver region: 1 – seeded fallow, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover, 4 – clover of the 1st year of use, 5 – flax, 6 – potatoes, 7 – spring cereals. Flax accounts for 14.3% of the area.

In both crop rotations, all crops are in good predecessors. According to the All-Russian Research Institute of Flax, on the cultivated soils of the Non-Chernozem zone with sufficient fertilization, it is advisable to place flax one year after perennial grasses, for example, after potatoes or winter cereals that go after perennial grasses. On poor soils with insufficient fertilization flax is placed after perennial grasses.

Central Black Earth zone

The Central Black Earth zone is characterized by cereal, beet, and forage specialization of crop rotations or their combinations. Cereals, row crops, forage, technical and other crops are cultivated in this zone. Leading among them: winter and spring wheat, winter rye, barley, sugar beet, corn, sunflower, potatoes, peas and lentils.

Natural and economic conditions are important in the structure of sown areas. In areas with sufficient moisture, seeded fallows show greater production returns than crop rotations with bare fallows.

Various scientific institutions recommend the following model crop rotations for the Central Black Earth zone: 1 – seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – spring cereals with undersowing of perennial grasses, 5 – perennial grasses of the first year of use, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – sugar beet, 8 – pea, 9 – winter wheat, 10 – corn for grain. Sugar beet accounts for 20% of the area, a large share is also accounted for by cereals, legumes and corn. If it is necessary to increase the share of sugar beet up to 30%, it is placed in the tenth field instead of corn.

In areas of insufficient and unstable moisture, where the balance of moisture is of particular importance, the role of bare fallow increases.

On soils at risk of erosion, in crop rotations with lower specific weight of row crops, in which sugar beet occupies one field, the following alternations are used:

1 – early seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley with undersowing of perennial grasses, 5-6 – perennial grasses of 1-2 years of use, 7 – winter wheat, 8 – peas, 9 – winter wheat, 10 – spring cereals and winter rye;
1 – perennial grasses of the 1st use, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley, 5 – pea, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – millet, 8 – spring cereals with undersowing of perennial grasses.

An important condition for saturation of specialized crop rotations with cereals is greater diversity of crops. This makes it possible to increase the share of cereals up to 65-75%:

  • 1 – clover of the 1st year of use, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – spring cereals, 5 – corn for silage, 6 – winter rye, 7 – cereals and potatoes, 8 – leguminous crops, 9 – winter wheat, 10 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover;
  • 1 – bare or seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley, 5 – peas, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – corn for grain, 8 – barley, 9 – corn, sunflower, 10 – spring cereals;
  • 1 – bare or seeded fallow, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – spring cereals, 5 – leguminous crops, 6 – winter cereals, 7 – cereals or corn, 8 – spring cereals.

In the east of the Central Black Earth zone with unstable moisture, the following crop rotation is used: 1 – bare or seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley and millet with undersowing of sainfoin, 5 – sainfoin, 6 – winter rye, 7 – sugar beet, 8 – corn, 9 – spring wheat, 10 – sunflower. Grain crops account for not more than 50%, sugar beet – 20% of the arable area, while maintaining the principle of alternation of crops.

North Caucasus

Cereal specialization

Cereals and leguminous crops – winter wheat, barley, corn, peas, sugar beet, sunflower – take the leading place in agriculture in the North Caucasus. Scientifically justified combination of these crops in crop rotations allows to receive high yields of grain and other products. In recent years, cereal-fallow-row, cereal-row and row crop rotations have been widely introduced, and, to a lesser extent, cereal-grass-row and grass field crop rotations have been introduced.

For the Northern regions of Rostov region the following field crop rotations are recommended, including bare fallow (15-20%) and wheat (40-50%): 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – winter wheat, 4 – corn for silage, 5 – winter wheat, 6 – bare fallow (1/2 field) and leguminous crops (1/2 field), 7 – winter wheat, 8 – winter wheat or corn for grain, 9 – barley, 10 – sunflower. Cereals and legumes account for 65% of the area.

In the southern districts of the Rostov Region, crop rotations with saturation with cereals up to 70% or more are recommended:

  • 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – winter wheat, 4 – leguminous crops, 5-6 – winter wheat, 7 – corn for silage, 8 – winter wheat, 9 – sunflower, 10 – barley;
  • 1 – bare fallow, 2 – 3 – winter wheat, 4 – peas, 5-6 – winter wheat, 7 – corn for grain, 8 – barley, 9 – sunflower, 10 – barley.

In the second crop rotation, cereals, corn, and peas account for 80% of the arable area. Such a highly saturated with cereals crop rotation requires a high level of agrotechnics and carrying out of field works in given periods, scientifically grounded application of optimal doses of fertilizers and chemical means of pest and weed control.

In areas where droughts do not manifest themselves under the condition of weak weed infestation of the fields apply a semi-steam system of tillage without clean fallows. For example, in Salsky district of Rostov region in the state farm “Gigant,” successfully introduced a crop rotation that gives high yields of grain: 1 – seeded fallow, 2-3 – winter wheat, 4 – peas, 5-6 – winter wheat, 7 – seeded fallow, 8 – winter wheat, 9 – corn on grain, 10 – spring barley.

The following crop rotations are used for arid regions of the Stavropol Territory:

  • 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – winter wheat, 4 – corn for silage, 5-6 – winter wheat, 7 – corn for silage, 8 – winter wheat, 9 – corn for grain or sunflower, 10 – spring barley;
  • 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – winter wheat, 4 – silage row crops, oats + legumes for forage, 5 – winter or spring barley, 6 – bare fallow or legumes, 7 – winter wheat, 8 – sunflower or sorghum for grain.

In the cereal and cattle breeding zone of the Stavropol Territory, cereal-row and cereal-fallow-row parable eight- and nine-field crop rotations prevail:

  • 1 – seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – pea, 5-6 winter wheat, 7 – sunflower, 8 – corn for silage, 9 – winter barley;
  • 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – corn for silage, 5 – winter wheat, 6 – castor beans, 7 – peas, 8 – winter wheat, 9 – sunflower.

In the northern districts of Krasnodar Krai, cereal-fallow-row crop rotations with a 70% share of cereals have been introduced. Cereal-fallow crop rotations are widespread in most central and southern districts of the region, which use seeded fallows or silage crops instead of bare fallow.

Crops for seeded fallows can be: Hungarian sainfoin, annual grasses, peas, corn for green forage or silage. Thus, in cereal-row crop rotations the share of cereals is 70-80% of the area: 1 – Hungarian sainfoin or corn for silage, 2-3 – winter wheat, 4 – corn for grain, 5-6 – winter wheat, 7 – peas, 8 – winter wheat, 9 – sunflower, 10 – spring or winter barley. Under conditions of sufficient moisture, field crop rotations with one or two fields of alfalfa are introduced.

Even with the maximum saturation of crop rotations of cereal crops in the conditions of the Kuban, Don and Stavropol winter crops are not placed over winter crops for more than two years, strictly follow the order of alternation of cereals with row crops and leguminous crops, etc. Correct alternation is combined with good tillage and application of fertilizers in sufficient quantities, the use of varietal seed material.

Beet specialization

For the zone of the North Caucasus, where farms specialize in sugar beet cultivation, a branch of the All-Russian Research Institute of Sugar Beet in areas of sufficient and unstable moisture recommend crop rotations with sugar beet cultivation after winter wheat, after early seeded fallows and second field – on winter wheat, following the corn for early silage, or on winter wheat, following perennial grasses of the 1st year of use.

In Northern Caucasus crop rotations, sugar beet may occupy two or three fields; in regions with insufficient moisture – one field, and it should be placed on winter wheat, which goes on bare fallow. Example: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley with undersowing sainfoin, 5 – sainfoin, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – corn, 8 – winter wheat, 9 – sunflower, 10 – winter barley or winter wheat.

Intermediate crops

Cereal-row and row crop rotations with maximum saturation with intermediate stubble crops are introduced under conditions of sufficient moisture in the Krasnodar Territory. In Kuban, millet, Sudan grass, corn, buckwheat, winter peas, etc. are used as stubble crops.

Volga Region

Cereals also occupy a leading place in the Volga region. In recent years, there has been a tendency to expand the sowing of winter cereals. In the forest-steppe part, good predecessor crops of winter cereals are bare and seeded fallow and peas.

Specialized crop rotations saturated with cereals and peas are common in Tatarstan and nearby regions. According to the Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture the following crop rotations are recommended for dark grey forest soils: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter rye, 3 – spring wheat, 4 – peas, 5 – winter rye, 6 – barley. Cereals and leguminous plants in this crop rotation account for 83% of the arable area. In areas with sufficient moisture in the first field instead of bare fallow, pea seeded fallow is placed.

Cereal-fallow-row crop rotations with a large share of spring cereal crops, mainly spring wheat, are common in the arid areas of the Volga region. Winter crops are grown mainly after bare and strip fallows: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – spring wheat, 4 – oats or barley, 5 – strip fallow, 6 – winter cereals, 7 – spring wheat, 8 – spring wheat, 9 – Sudan grass. In this crop rotation cereals occupy 67% of the area, bare fallow – 22%, and annual grasses – 11%. At the same time, cereals are placed on cereals after fallow for three years in a row.

Crop rotation was successfully introduced in Volgograd region: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – corn, 4 – spring wheat, 5 – millet and pea, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – spring wheat, 8 – sunflower, 9 – spring wheat, 10 – barley. 70% of the area is devoted to cereals, 20% to row crops, and 10% to bare fallow.

In dry years in the south-east of the Volga region it is advisable to place spring wheat after fallows, under these conditions it shows higher yields.

Specialized cereal crop rotations on irrigated lands include alfalfa. Cereals, corn and peas account for up to 67-71% of the area:

  • 1 – spring wheat with alfalfa underplanting, 2-3 – alfalfa of 1-2 years of use, 4-5 – spring wheat, 6 – winter wheat + stubble crop;
  • 1 – alfalfa of the 1st year of use, 2 – alfalfa of the 2nd year of use, 3 – spring wheat, 4 – winter wheat + stubble crop, 5 – peas, corn, 6 – spring wheat, 7 – spring wheat with undersowing of alfalfa.

Steppe and forest-steppe regions of Siberia

In the steppe and forest-steppe regions of Siberia, the leading crop is spring wheat and barley as forage crops; the main crop production branch is cereal production. Cereals account for 60-70% of arable land in the structure of crop rotations. In some districts of the zone, there are cultivated red-root, sunflower, mustard, oil flax, perennial and annual grasses, corn and sunflower for silage.

The best predecessors of spring wheat in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of Siberia are bare or strip fallows, then corn for green forage or early silage, perennial and annual grasses, and leguminous crops. In addition, repeated sowing of spring wheat is used. In this zone, as well as in Kazakhstan, the most effective are cereal-fallow, cereal-fallow-grass, cereal-fallow-row crop rotations with placement, if necessary, of perennial grasses in the non-rotation fields.

The following crop rotations are introduced in Siberia and Kazakhstan:

  • 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – spring wheat, 4 – grain forage. This crop rotation refers to the cereal-fallow, the share of spring cereals 75%, bare fallow 25% of the arable land;
  • 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – spring wheat, 4 – row crops, 5 – spring wheat, 6 – barley. The species of crop rotation is cereal-fallow-row, the share of spring cereals – 2/3 (67%), row crops – 16.7% and bare fallow – 16.7% of the arable land.

To provide livestock with hay and silage fodder while obtaining a large yield of grain the following crop rotation is recommended: 1 – corn for silage, 2-3 – spring wheat, 4 – forage grains.

In the steppe and black earth forest-steppe zone five-field cereal-fallow crop rotation is effective:

  • 1 – bare fallow, 2 – spring wheat, 3 – peas, 4 – spring wheat, 5 – forage crops;
  • 1 – bare fallow, 2 – spring wheat or winter rye, 3 – spring wheat, 4 – vetch-oat mixture or leguminous crops, 5 – spring wheat and grain forage.

Cereals and leguminous crops account for 80% in these crop rotations, while bare fallow accounts for 20%.

In the forest-steppe, sub-taiga, and taiga regions, cereal-fallow-row and cereal-grass crop rotations are used:

  • 1 – bare fallow, 2 – spring wheat, 3 – forage crops, 4 – corn or annual grasses, 5 – spring wheat, 6 – forage crops;
  • 1 – bare fallow, 2-3 – spring wheat with undersowing of perennial grasses, 4-5 – perennial grasses of the 1-2nd year of use, 6-7 – spring wheat, 8 – corn, 9 – spring wheat, 10 – barley and oats.

On a par with bare fallow, perennial grasses are the best predecessor of spring wheat and subsequent crops.

Krasnoyarsk Territory uses crop rotation with the share of cereals – 57%, clover – 29% and bare fallow – 14%: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – spring cereals, 3 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover, 4-5 – clover 1-2 years of use, 6 – spring wheat or flax, 7 – grain forage.

In the steppe zone of Eastern Siberia it is advisable to use cereal-fallow-row crop rotations on fertile soils: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – spring wheat, 3 – corn, 4 – grain forage.

Far East

In the Far East, special crop rotations are used in the soybean growing areas:

  • 1 – bare or seeded fallow, 2 – spring wheat, 3 – soybeans, 4 – spring grain forage, 5 – soybeans (soybeans – 40%); 
  • 1 – clover of the 1st year of use, 2 – soybeans, 3 – wheat, 4 – soybeans, 5 – spring cereals with undersowing of clover (soybeans – 40%);
  • 1 – seeded fallow, 2 – wheat, 3 – soybean, 4 – wheat, 5 – soybean, 6 – spring cereals, 7 – soybean (soybean – 43%).

On light soils, cereal-soybean crop rotations include row crops such as corn, potatoes, and others.

Sources

Farming. Textbook for universities / G.I. Bazdyrev, V.G. Loshakov, A.I. Puponin et al. – Moscow: Publishing House “Kolos”, 2000. – 551 с.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Farming and crop production. Edited by V.S. Niklyaev. – Moscow: Bylina, 2000. – 555 с.