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Tillage for winter crops

Winter cereal crops are sown at such a time as to ensure a vegetation period of at least 45-55 days in the fall. Before the onset of frost, they should develop a sufficiently powerful root system, sprout and accumulate a reserve of plastic substances necessary for the overwintering.

The main tasks of tillage for winter crops:

  • creation of a fine lumpy loose seed layer with an even surface and a compacted seed bed;
  • accumulation of sufficient moisture and nutrients available to plants;
  • clearing the fields from weeds.

Depending on zonal conditions and the adopted system of crop rotations in the farm winter crops can be placed on three types of predecessors: bare fallow, strip fallow, seeded fallow, and non-fallow predecessors.

Soil tillage for winter crops is carried out taking into account the preceding crop, weed infestation, probability of erosion risk, soil type, soil properties, weather and other conditions.

Tillage for winter crops in bare fallow

Bare fallows are widespread in arid areas, in zones of unstable moisture, as well as after sunflowers, millet, barley, and other crops that clog fields because of their poor competitiveness with weeds.

In the steppe regions of Siberia and Kazakhstan, which are characterized by harsh snowless winters, winter cereals are almost not cultivated, and after fallow, spring wheat is sown. In this case the fallow field is cultivated for a longer period, including the spring of the year of spring wheat sowing.

Bare fallow tillage system

The system of cultivation of bare fallow, including black fallow, includes two periods: summer-autumn in the year of harvesting the preceding crop and spring-summer – in the year of sowing winter crops.

Summer-autumn tillage

Summer-autumn tillage of black fallow is carried out immediately after harvesting the forecrop as autumn tillage for spring crops. On the fields weeded with annual weeds discing is carried out on 5-6 cm. With mass emergence of weeds and fallen seeds of the preceding crop, carry out repeated discing in the cross direction. In the case of weed infestation by perennial weeds, the depth of repeated discing increase to 12-14 cm, using polydisk-tillers.

In arid regions instead of disk-tillers used flat-cut cultivators such as КПШ-5, КПШ-9 or anti-erosion КПЭ-3,8, which leave crop residues on the surface of the field.

The timely disking of stubble prevents soil drying, reduces energy consumption for plowing and improves the quality of soil crumbling.

Autumn plowing is carried out with plows with skimmers in humid areas without harrowing, in arid areas – with harrowing and leveling the soil. At carrying out autumn plowing deepening of the arable layer, especially soils with low natural fertility and sloping lands, observing all the requirements for deepening.

On sloping lands, plowing is carried out across the slope with simultaneous slotting to a depth of 30-40 cm to reduce water runoff and increase its reserves in the soil profile.

Fields weeded with perennial weeds, sprouting of which appear in late autumn after plowing, are left for fallow. Surface cultivation without harrowing by 6-8 cm is carried out to undercut sprouts of weeds.

The depth of autumn plowing depends on the type and properties of soil, weed infestation of the field and other conditions. For sod-podzolic soils, taking into account the thickness of the arable layer, the depth of plowing is 20-22 cm for gray forest and black earth, as well as on weedy fields, the depth is increased to 25-27 cm.

Under arid conditions, plowing to a depth of more than 25 cm leads to excessive loosening, large losses of water for evaporation, increased mineralization of organic matter, weakening resistance to erosion. Therefore, in these conditions, the summer-autumn tillage of bare fallow includes stubble loosening with needle harrows, for example, БИГ-3А or БМШ-15, БМШ-20, and the appearance of weeds perform flat loosening by flat-cut cultivators such as КПШ-9, КПШ-11 to a depth of 10-12 cm.

For reliable protection of the soil from wind erosion on the field should remain at least 0.9 t/ha of stubble. The main tillage at a depth of 25-27 cm is done in late fall by subsurface (flat-cut) deep tillers such as КПГ-250А, ПГ-3-100, ПГ-3,5.

According to the Stavropol Research Institute of Agriculture, on light chestnut and chestnut soils of light granulometric composition, the depth of flat-cutting loosening in autumn can be reduced to 20-22 cm or postponed until spring.

Spring-summer tillage

Bare fallows accumulate up to 80-160 mm of water by spring. To avoid large losses of moisture in the spring when the physical ripeness is reached, harrowing with tooth harrows in two tracks perpendicular to the direction of plowing or diagonally.

To control weeds in the spring and summer period, a layer-by-layer treatment of black fallow is carried out. In areas with sufficient moisture black fallow is cultivated several times by disc-tillers, polydisc-tillers or fallow cultivators, gradually increasing the depth of loosening by 3-4 cm. The depth of the first discing is 6-8 cm, carried out with mass germination of weed seeds. The seeds of weeds extracted from the depth of discing, getting into favorable conditions of the upper layer and in the presence of moisture and heat, quickly give sprouts, which are destroyed by repeated discing.

In zones with sufficient moisture, with abundant rainfall in the middle of the summer period, especially on floating soils, their compaction is possible. Therefore, if there is no risk of drying, 3-4 weeks before sowing winter crops, repeated plowing (doubling) fallow to a full depth of the arable layer with plows without skimmers with simultaneous harrowing. Summer plowing promotes mixing of previously made organic fertilizers.

A combination of layer-by-layer loosening and surface tillage provides good results in weed control. All types of summer tillage of black fallow are carried out in combination with harrowing, in dry weather – additionally with soil rolling. When soil crust is formed or when weeds sprout in the phase of white threads, surface harrowing is carried out.

When the fields are weeded with couch grass (Elytrigia), the flat-cut tillage is replaced by tillage with heavy cultivators. Do not use tooth harrows and rollers.

For 2-3 weeks before sowing winter crops and organic fertilizers make repeated plowing (doubling) fallow plow without skimmers or polydisk-tillers on light soils at 16-17 cm on heavy – on 14-16 cm, that is less depth than the autumn plowing, with simultaneous harrowing or leveling.

Plowing fallow, especially on heavy soils, allows you to mix organic and mineral fertilizers, accumulate available nutrients to plants.

In the Non-Black Soil Zone black fallow is the best place in the rotation to deepen the arable layer with the simultaneous introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers and ameliorants.

In the arid zone and in areas with insufficient moisture organic fertilizers are introduced into the fallow field in autumn under the main plowing. To save moisture in the soil in arid areas repeated plowing of fallow is not carried out.

In spring and summer period is carried out 1-2 layer-by-layer and surface tillage with polydisc-tillers or disc-tillers after harrowing. Then prior to sowing, soil is cultivated: first time to a depth of 10-12 cm, if weeded with root-shoot weeds – to 14-16 cm, rhizome weeds – 12-14 cm, in the case of weeded creeping (Rhaponticum repens) – chiseling to 18 cm. The depth of subsequent tillage is reduced. Rolling after deep tillage in spring and summer is also effective. Before sowing of winter crops, cultivation is carried out to the depth of seed embedding. Spring-summer tillage is carried out when weeds grow or surface crust is formed.

In the steppe arid regions at risk of wind erosion, spring harrowing is used for needle harrow БИГ-3А type; in summer it is cultivated with shallow loosening, but not turning working tools, such as flat-cut tillers, anti-erosion cultivators, non-moldboard tillers. The first cultivation to the depth of 10-12 cm is carried out with mass emergence of weeds. If fields are infested with perennial weeds, the depth is increased to 12-14 cm.

The number of cultivations in the summer period for the care of bare fallows can be reduced from 4-5 to 1-2 due to the use of herbicides, which is especially important for moisture conservation and reduction of soil dispersion in arid conditions.

In case of abundant summer precipitation, it is recommended to alternate tillage of fallow with flat-cut cultivators and cultivation with rod-cultivators.

After 4-5 times summer fallow tillage, by autumn there are few stubble and plant residues, which dramatically increases the risk of wind erosion. For this reason, fallow fields are cultivated in strips 100-200 m wide, oriented across the direction of prevailing winds. Strips of fallow are alternated with strips of crops; in the next year, the strips are swapped, and each field passes through fallow in two years instead of one.

Tillage of early fallow

The efficiency of early fallow can be improved by carrying out autumn post-harvest stubble discing or flat-cutting in order to control weeds. In this case early fallow is called improved fallow.

In arid conditions and light soils subject to wind erosion, early fallow has advantages over black fallow. According to the data of the Prikum experimental station of Stavropol Territory, winter crops sown with early fallow show yields by 0.16-0.3 t/ha higher than with black fallow.

Stubble left after the forecrop protects the soil from wind erosion, contributes to the accumulation and preservation of moisture, and also allows for 25-27% reduction of energy costs for fall tillage.

Spring harrowing with needle harrows is carried out on stubble. Plowing of early fallow is carried out in early spring when the soil is 20-22 cm thick with the help of combined plowing units with simultaneous harrowing and rolling. For this purpose, ploughs are equipped with devices of ПВР-2,3 type (narrow wedge and circular discs) for better crumbling of boulders, leveling and compacting of soil. Early fallow plowing prevents soil drying in dry conditions and helps control pests of winter crops, such as sawfly and grain weevil.

On sod-podzolic soils, early fallow is disked in spring, and if heavily infested with rhizomatous weeds, cross-discing is carried out. Plowing with ploughs with skimmers is carried out at the appearance of shoots of weeds in the form of the first leaves at a depth of the arable layer. If it is necessary to postpone plowing in the summer, during the spring-summer period the field is carried out several discing with simultaneous harrowing. Before plowing, organic fertilizers are applied and the field is disced for better mixing. Tillage for early fallow is carried out according to the same scheme as for black fallow. As weeds sprout, fields are cultivated with simultaneous harrowing and rolling. When soil crust is formed, it is destroyed by harrowing.

Tillage of a strip fallow

In arid areas prone to wind erosion, crops are sown in narrow strips on bare fallows in summer; the fallow itself is called strip fallow. Strip fallows serve as a good predecessor for winter and spring wheat, increasing the yield by 0.3-0.4 t/ha.

Strip fallow fields after harvesting the forecrop are cultivated according to the type of black or early fallow. Soils at risk of wind erosion are left without tillage in autumn. When weeding the field with perennial weeds carry out shallow flat-cut tillage to a depth of 10-14 or replace it with herbicide treatment.

In the spring after the covering harrowing with needle harrows type БИГ-3А when massive sprouts of weeds appear, plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm with harrowing and rolling is carried out. The depth of plowing of heavy soils is increased to 25-27 cm. At the risk of wind erosion, deep loosening is carried out with subsurface (flat-cut) deep tillers.

In summer, the care of strip fallow is similar to that of bare fallow.

Plants for sowing in strips, such as mustard, rape, corn, are sown 1-1.5 months before sowing winter crops, so that they do not have time to form seeds and do not clog the field. Sowing is carried out by strip seeder type CKH-3, combining with the next cultivation of fallows. For sowing plants in strips it is possible to complete a unit consisting of three cultivators, whereby the middle cultivator is connected to a three-row strip seeder that sows three rows of plants with a row spacing of 30 cm. The width of strip is 0.6 m.

The distance between the strips should be a multiple of the working width of the tillage unit, for example, for strip sowing of mustard, rape, it is 6-16 m, corn – 16-24 m.

Care of strip fallow in the interstrip spaces should be carried out in such a way that the working tools of cultivators do not damage the plants.

For optimal effect of strips, they are placed across the prevailing in winter winds.

Cereal crops are sown across the strips, partially damaging the plants in the strips themselves.

Tillage in seeded fallows

Tillage in the seeded fallows can be divided into two periods:

  • first – from harvesting of the forecrop to sowing of the crop occupying the fallow;
  • the second – from harvesting of the crop occupying the fallow to sowing of winter cereals.

Tillage for a fallow crop is similar to that for spring crops. In the Altai region of Russia, winter crops are mainly placed after fallow fields. In the eastern regions, such as Togul, Eltsovsky, Soltonsky, and Tselinniy districts of Altai Krai, winter rye is placed in crop rotations after leguminous crops.

The choice of tillage methods after harvesting a crop occupying a fallow field is determined by the weediness of the field, soil moisture and the duration of the period from harvesting the predecessor to sowing winter crops.

Heavy soils and weedy fields with sufficient moisture are plowed immediately after harvesting annual grasses, as drying of such soils leads to a large clumpiness that prevents the soil from settling before sowing. For early plowing, harrowing or 1-2 cultivations combined with harrowing to eliminate sprouts of weeds before sowing are carried out.

For crumbling boulders and leveling of ploughed soil, combined aggregates such as РВК-3,6, РВК-5,4, which create good conditions for uniform embedding of seeds, increase completeness of shoots, resulting in increased winter crops yield by 0.15-0.2 t / ha are used.

For crops that occupy the fallow (e.g., annual grasses), it is possible to deepen the topsoil so that winter crops can use the effects of deep tillage. At the same time organic fertilizers and ameliorants are applied. Instead of plowing winter crops use shallow tillage to a depth of 8-10 cm with disc tools in one or two tracks with harrowing and subsequent pre-sowing cultivation. In dry weather the soil is additionally rolled. On well-cultivated soils weakly weeded by perennial weeds, after harvesting annuals, it is effective to use disc-tiller or polydisc-tiller with harrowing. To prevent soil drying before sowing of winter crops, milling tillage is carried out to a depth of 8-10 cm with the help of cultivators such as КФГ-3,6 with simultaneous leveling and compacting of the soil.

This method provides good loosening and mixing of the soil with mineral fertilizers. With surface tillage for winter crops may increase the weed infestation of the fields, so they are combined with the use of herbicides.

Under the conditions of high intensification of agriculture, the combination of pre-sowing tillage and sowing of winter crops is widely used. For this use a combined tillage sowing aggregates of VIM design, for example, КА-3,6, КА-7,2, including a milling machine and a grain seeder. On sod-podzolic and gray forest soils, this technology of tillage provides productivity of winter crops up to 4.5-5 t/ha, in dry years it increases by 0.2-0.4 t/ha.

On black earth in dry years after harvesting annual grasses, plowing is replaced by discing by polydisc-tillers to a depth of 12-14 cm, for example, ППЛ-10-25, or shallow plowing with harrowing and rolling. Subsequent tillage includes 1-2 cultivations to a depth of 6-8 cm with harrowing and leveling the surface. With strong soil dryness, typical for arid steppe regions, plowing is replaced by tillage with heavy disc-tillers at 10-12 cm followed by cultivation at 6-7 cm with fallow cultivators type КПЭ-3,8, КРГ-3,6, equipped with additional needle harrows for good soil crumbling. Use of such aggregates allows to increase the yield of winter wheat by 0.17-0.21 t/ha.

Fields after perennial grasses as well as those weeded with perennial weeds previously disced to a depth of 8-10 cm for 12-15 days before plowing. When mass regrowth of weeds is carried out plowing with ploughs with skimmers. For plowing, can be used combined plowing aggregates type ПКА-2, combining plow, leveling the soil, a section of the ring-spur roller. Tillage aggregate allows to embed crop residues and turf, level the surface of the field, compact the soil, which makes it possible to qualitatively prepare the soil for sowing.

In areas with sufficient moisture when infestation with annual weeds, plowing to the full depth of the arable layer by plow with skimmers and simultaneous harrowing. Further as weed vegetation grows, surface loosening is carried out in dry years by cultivator, in wet years – by mouldboard tillers in combination with harrows. The first tillage is carried out to the depth of 10-12 cm, the second – to 6-8 cm. Before sowing of winter crops the soil is cultivated to the depth of seed embedding with simultaneous harrowing.

If the fields are infested with rhizomatous and root-shoot weeds before plowing, discing is carried out at 10-14 cm. Discing is especially effective on clayey and loamy soils, in dry weather to facilitate and reduce energy costs of subsequent plowing. Plowing is replaced by discing in case, when fallow-occupying crop is harvested late and the soil does not have time to settle before sowing of winter crops. The same is done in the case of severe drying of the soil.

The timing of plowing and the methods of its tillage significantly affect the field germination of the seeds of winter crops and the nature of their overwintering. Plowing immediately after mowing perennial grasses creates more favorable conditions for the decomposition of root and stubble residues in the arable layer, and, accordingly, the provision of available nutrients to plants.

Plowing is carried out not later than 2-3 weeks before sowing of winter crops. Early terms allow you to carry out activities to control germinating weeds by surface cultivation. Soil after plowing and before sowing of winter crops is maintained in a loose condition, using harrowing or shallow cultivation with harrowing. Before sowing winter crops perform cultivation with harrowing to the depth of sowing seeds.

In years with sufficient moisture, when the soil is well crumbled during tillage, plowing is more effective in controlling weeds. In dry years, plowing dries out the soil and is therefore replaced by shallow tillage, which does not reduce yields. The main thing in these conditions is to create a good loose seed layer with a compacted seed bed and a leveled soil surface, and to improve the moisture supply of germinating seeds.

Table. Yield of winter crops at different methods of tillage of fallow, t/ha

Crop, area of cultivation
Number of experiments
Plowing the soil at 20-22 cm
Disc-tillage or flat-cutting at 10-12 cm
Winter rye, Non-Black Soil Zone
34
31.3
32.7
Winter wheat, Central Black Earth zone
26
34.0
36.2
Volga Region
47
22.6
23.2
North Caucasus
38
42.8
43.3

Tillage after row crops that occupy the fallow

Corn for silage or green fodder, early potato varieties, etc. are used as predecessors of winter crops. Deep tillage is often used for row crops, including autumn plowing with ploughs with skimmers, deep chiseling or non-moldboard loosening. On soils with low thickness humus horizon deepening of the arable layer is carried out, using chiseling or plowing with plows with notched bodies and other methods.

In the zone of sufficient moisture is widespread row potato fallow. Organic fertilizers for potatoes are applied under deep autumn tillage. In cases where manure is not applied in autumn, it is removed to the field in winter, putting it in large stacks, and embed it in the spring at a shallower depth than in autumn. Spring fallow plowing is combined with harrowing to prevent the soil from drying out.

Care for potatoes includes pre- and post-row harrowing, inter-row cultivation, and 1-2 hilling. Early potato varieties, which have time to harvest 3-4 weeks before sowing of winter crops, are sown in fallow. After harvesting the field is loose enough and clean enough from weeds, so do not plow, limiting itself to surface tillage – loosening of 10-12 cm with heavy cultivators КПЭ-3,8, chiselers – КПЧ-5,4 or discing with simultaneous harrowing and subsequent pre-sowing cultivation to the depth of seed sowing. If the field is weedy and there are crop residues of the previous crop, plowing with harrowing and subsequent rolling is carried out.

Heavy and weedy soils shallow plowing with polydisc-tillers to a depth of 14-16 cm or shallow plowing with harrowing and rolling is advisable. For this purpose, 5- and 6-hoe plows are used, equipped with special devices for crushing clumps, leveling and compacting the soil, for example, ПВР-2,3, which allow qualitatively prepare the soil for sowing.

In the southern regions of Russia, the fallow land occupied by corn or sunflowers for green fodder or early silage is successfully used. For the crushing of crop residues and good loosening of the topsoil before plowing, the field is cultivated twice with heavy disc-tillers type БДТ-7 to a depth of 10-12 cm in a crosswise direction. In dry years, after harvesting corn or sunflowers, 2-3 tillage with disc-tillers to 8-10 cm. Root-stem shredders are effective for shredding coarse crop residues.

Shallow tillage of fallow occupied by row crops is more effective than plowing. For example, plowing of black earth in the steppe and forest-steppe zones often leads to a large clumpiness of soil, which poorly settles, requires large energy inputs for additional tillage, negatively affects the germination of seeds and uniformity of seedlings, worsens conditions of overwintering.

On less compacted black earth after row crops double discing to a depth of 10-12 cm with subsequent cultivation of КПЭ-3,8 or КРГ-3,6 in combination with a needle harrow БИГ-3 is carried out. Before sowing, pre-sowing cultivation is carried out to the depth of the seed embedment with simultaneous rolling.

The replacement of plowing by shallow tillage allows to save 12.8 kg/ha of diesel fuel, the yield of winter wheat thus increases from 3.58 to 4.13 t/ha, reduces the time of soil preparation and allows to sow winter crops in optimal time.

Tilling of sideral fallows

Lupine, coltsfoot, seradella and other legumes are cultivated in sideral fallows, the green mass of which is plowed into the soil as a green fertilizer. On lighter soils it is more appropriate to grow as a green manure lupine, and on more cohesive carbonate – melilot.

Tillage for crops occupying fallow is carried out similarly to tillage for spring crops. The deep penetrating tap root system of green manure crops requires a thick arable layer. Therefore, deepening of the arable layer with the simultaneous introduction of lowland peat, phosphorus and potash fertilizers is possible in the system of autumn tillage. To reduce the intensity of mineralization of organic matter in light soils, plowing is carried out in late fall or postponed to the spring.

Annual lupine and seradella are sown in spring at the optimum time for these crops, and perennial lupine and clovercrop are sown under the cover crop preceding fallow.

Syderal crops in the early phases of vegetation develop slowly and poorly compete in this period with weeds, so weedy fields prior to discing or use herbicides. Deep plowing is also highly effective in weed control.

Spring pre-sowing tillage consists of harrowing and 1-2 cultivations to a depth of 6-8 cm with harrowing. The depth of the first cultivation of highly compacted soils increases to 10-12 cm.

Vegetable mass of annual lupine without alkaloid is mowed for green fodder, and stubble and root residues are ploughed with plows without skimmers 15-20 days before sowing winter crops on light soils, and 30-35 days – on heavy soils, which usually corresponds to mid-July. For better penetration of green manure plants before plowing, they are rolled or mowed. After plowing, the field is rolled with ring rollers.

Green mass of green manure plants is plowed to the depth of the arable layer in the phase of flowering or formation of beans. For better penetration plant mass is pre-rolled along the direction of plowing or disced in two directions. To this end, ploughs are equipped with disc blades instead of skimmers, and in front of each body set a metal bar that presses the plants to the ground. Disk blades cut the plant mass and ease the work of the plow. To eliminate excessive looseness of soil, the field after plowing is rolled to prevent its drying and accelerate decomposition of green mass.

The long period from plowing green mass to sowing winter crops is accompanied by the emergence of weeds, which causes the need for additional harrowing or shallow cultivation. In the absence of perennial weeds before sowing winter crops it is effective discing the soil at 6-8 cm with simultaneous leveling, so as not to extract the undecomposed plant matter on the surface.

Tillage after non-fallow predecessors

The high level of intensification and chemicalization of agriculture creates the opportunity to expand the sowing of winter crops on non-fallow predecessors. In the steppe zone winter crops are sown after early harvested winter and spring cereals, corn on grain, sunflower. In the Non-Black Soil Zone, winter cereals may be preceded by perennial grasses of the second year of use, fibre flax, buckwheat, peas, etc.

In this case, sowing of winter crops after the best predecessors, timely harvesting and fertilizing are essential to achieve high yields.

Late harvesting dates, compaction and drying of the soil require better tillage in a short period of time; therefore, tillage after non-fallow predecessors is strictly differentiated, taking into account soil moistening, the preceding crop, weediness of the field and the duration of post-harvesting period.

Under conditions of insufficient moisture after the corn on a grain, sunflower plowing is replaced by tillage with heavy disc-tillers at 10-12 cm in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The first discing is carried out immediately after harvesting the forecrop, the second – simultaneously with rolling.

After harvesting corn, sunflowers or cereals in sufficient moisture plowing is carried out at 16-18 cm with simultaneous harrowing and rolling. Deep plowing with prior discing is effective only when the soil is weeded by rhizomatous and root-shoot weeds. Discing is carried out when the soil dries out very much to facilitate the work of the plowing unit. Before sowing of winter crops, perform cultivation or discing as weeds grow with pre-sowing cultivation.

In the case of a long postharvest period the soil is additionally cultivated with a needle harrow or cultivated in a unit with a needle harrow to improve the quality of soil crumbling. Before sowing winter crops, cultivation is carried out to the depth of seed embedding.

In areas at risk of wind erosion, after the cereal crops, the cultivation is carried out with stubble remaining on the field surface for which the КПШ-5, КПШ-9, КПШ-11 flat-cut cultivators are used to the depth of 10-12 cm. Combined aggregates such as АКП-2,5, АКП-5, including flat-cutter, disk tools, needle harrow and ring-spur or ring rollers (ЗККШ-6А) provide a better quality of tillage and protect the soil from erosion, while reducing the number of equipment passes over the field and soil compaction.

In the zone with unstable moisture after stubble forecrop, half-fallow tillage is effective, combining shallow plowing with subsequent surface tillage. For plowing, combined plowing aggregates equipped with devices for crumbling, leveling and compaction of the soil are used. For better crumbling of parched soil after plowing unit is advisable to hold processing needle harrows such as БИГ-3.

If the soil in the postharvest period is dried out, plowing is replaced by discing with tillers without mouldboards or a heavy disc-tillers to a depth of 10-12 cm. Pre-sowing cultivation is combined with sowing by combined tillage seeders, seeder СЗС-2,1.

However, surface and flat-cutting cultivation increases the infestation of winter wheat plants by 40-45% of root rots and pests, especially when winter crops are planted on cereal precursors in zones with sufficient and unstable moisture.

In the Non-Black Soil Zone after stubble forecrop perform ploughing to a depth of 12-14 cm or shallow plowing with harrowing. Embedding of stubble of cereal crops protects winter crops from root rot. Subsequent tillage consists of loosening and leveling the soil with the help of combined aggregates РВК-3,6. Before sowing, pre-sowing cultivation with harrowing and rolling of the soil is carried out. The latter prevents soil subsidence, which leads to exposure of the bush node of winter cereals and frost.

In flax-growing areas, winter rye is sown after fiber flax, following perennial grasses. When placed one year after perennial grasses, plowing is usually impractical, so it is replaced by shallow tillage with disc-tillers or polydisc-tillers at 10-12 cm or heavy cultivators КПЭ-3,8. Heavy and weedy soils are plowed with simultaneous harrowing immediately after the forecrop harvesting. Before sowing, the soil is cultivated with harrowing to the depth of sowing.

In the case of sowing winter crops immediately after perennial grasses of the 2nd year of use, after harvesting grasses perform discing and subsequent plowing with a plow with skimmers.

Sources

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Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Farming and crop production. Edited by V.S. Niklyaev. – Moscow: Bylina, 2000. – 555 с.

Fundamentals of Agronomy: Tutorial/Y.V. Evtefeev, G.M. Kazantsev. – M.: FORUM, 2013. – 368 p.: ill.