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Castor bean

Castor bean or Castor oil plant (Ricinus) is a tilled oilseed crop.

Economic importance

Castor seeds contain from (40) 47 to 52 (59)% non-drying oil. In the kernels, the oil content reaches 65-70%. The oil has a high viscosity, does not harden at low temperatures (up to 16 °C), the iodine number is 82-86, and does not ignite at high temperatures. The seeds contain poisonous substances – ricin, the chemical composition of which includes a cyan group, and a less toxic alkaloid ricinin (toxalbullin).

Castor bean seed oil is obtained by hot pressing the seeds or by solvent extraction. Castor oil obtained by these methods is used in leather, textile, paint and varnish, soap, perfume, metalworking and other industries. The oil obtained by the cold method is used in medicine and is called castor oil. Castor oil and castor oil differ in different content of toxic substances: they are partially present in castor oil, and practically absent in castor oil.

Castor oilcake is used to produce casein glue and as an organic fertilizer with a nitrogen content of up to 7.5%, up to 2% phosphorus. It is not suitable for livestock feed without pre-treatment, as it contains toxic substances. At oil mills, castor oil cake can be decontaminated, after which it is permissible to feed it to animals in small quantities. 100 kg of oilcake correspond to 92 feed units and contain 2.6 kg of digestible protein.

Castor bean leaves can be used to feed silkworms.

Crop history

The homeland of the castor bean is tropical Africa, where it is still found in the wild. Also found in the countries of Western and Central Asia, Afghanistan and India.

It began to be cultivated in ancient times in Egypt, from where it later spread to Asia, America and Europe.

In Russia, castor beans began to be grown in the second half of the 19th century. The first mention of it dates back to 1840.

Cultivation areas and yield

In 1986, the area sown with castor beans in the world was about 1.5 million hectares (or 1% of all sown areas occupied by oilseeds), of which 500 thousand hectares were located in India, more than 400 thousand hectares – in Brazil . There are small areas under crops in Italy, Argentina, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, China, and African countries. The gross harvest of oilseeds was 1.4 million tons.

In the USSR in 1986, the sown area was about 140 thousand hectares.

The main areas of castor bean cultivation in Russia are the North Caucasus, the Rostov Region, the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. Also grown in the south of Ukraine.

The average seed yield is 0.8-0.9 t/ha. The maximum yield is 1.5-2.0 t/ha.

In Russia, the yield is usually 0.5 t/ha, in the USSR – 0.8 t/ha.

Botanical description

Cultivated castor oil belongs to the genus Ricinus , family Euphorbia ( Euphorbiaceae ). The genus Ricinus includes three species:

  • castor bean (Ricinus microcarpus g. Pop);
  • large-fruited castor bean (Ricinus macrocarpus g. Pop.);
  • Zanzibar castor bean (Ricinus sansibarinus g. Pop.).

In Russia and on the territory of the countries of the former USSR, two types are cultivated: small-fruited castor bean and large-fruited castor bean. These species have subspecies, of which the Persian castor bean (Ricinus microcarpus ssp. persicus g. Pop.) and the blood-red castor bean (Ricinus macrocarpus ssp. sanguineus g. Pop.) are of the greatest agricultural importance.

In the tropics and subtropics, castor bean grows as a perennial plant. Plants under these conditions reach a height of 10 m, with a well-developed crown and thick stem. In our country, it is cultivated as an annual crop, as it dies in winter.

Root

The root is taproot, penetrates to a depth of 3-4 m and spreads to the sides up to 2-2.5 m.

Stem

The stem is straight, hollow inside, strongly branched.

Plant height 1-3 m or more.

Persian castor bean plants are shorter, with a green stem and a waxy coating. Blood red castor bean plants have a red or brown stem without a waxy coating.

Leaves

The leaves are large, on long petioles, palmately incised, with 7-11 lobes.

In Persian castor beans, the color of the leaves is green, in blood red – green with red veins.

Inflorescence

The inflorescence is a raceme, up to 80 cm long in Persian castor beans, up to 60 cm in blood-red ones. 2-12 inflorescences are formed on one plant.

In the upper part of the brush are collected female flowers, in the lower part – male. In one brush there are from 50 to 200 flowers. Flowers are small, dioecious. Perianth simple, five-petalled.

Male flowers with numerous stamens. Female – with a three-celled ovary and three two-lobed stigmas.

Plants are cross-pollinated.

Fruit

The fruit is a three-celled spherical or elongated capsule, which contains one seed in each nest. The surface is smooth or covered with thorns, the thorns become prickly when ripe.

The boxes located on the central brush ripen first, the lateral ones later.

In the Persian castor bean, the ripe bolls crack and the seeds spill out. In blood-red castor beans, the boxes do not crack.

Seeds

Seeds are oval-ovoid, with a shiny brittle shell, variegated. In the seeds of the blood-red castor bean, a dark brown color predominates and there is a clearly expressed papillary outgrowth – caruncle, in the Persian castor bean, gray color prevails, and the caruncle is less noticeable. Persian castor seeds are smaller than blood red.

The weight of 1000 seeds is from 200 to 500 g.

Biological features

Temperature requirements

Castor oil is considered a heat-loving plant.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 12-13 °C, at 10 °C only single shoots appear. The optimum germination temperature is 16-18 °C.

Seeds germinate in 8 days at 15 °C, 4-5 days at 20 °C, and 2-3 days at 25-30 °C.

Normal development of plants requires 25-30 °C (Vavilov). According to other sources, 20-25 °C (Kolomeichenko). In cool weather, the ripening period increases significantly, and the yield and oil content of seeds decrease.

Seedlings and adult plants can be damaged when the temperature drops to -2 °C.

The intake of nutrients in castor beans increases at a temperature of 30-35 °C.

Moisture requirements

Castor oil is demanding on moisture. The amount of precipitation during the growing season should be at least 300 mm.

High yields are possible only under conditions of sufficient moisture or irrigation. In dry years, leaves fall off the plants, flowers and boxes fall off. With a lack of moisture, the yield and oil content of seeds decreases sharply.

Thanks to a powerful and developed root system, plants are able to tolerate short-term droughts.

Soil requirements

Castor oil is demanding on the soil. Optimum (sandy and loamy) chernozems and gray soils, rich in nutrients and well aerated.

The optimal reaction of the soil solution is pH 6.0-7.3.

Heavy clay, light sandy, swampy, floating, saline and alkaline soils are unsuitable for cultivation.

Light requirements

Light-loving short day plant.

Vegetation

Vegetation period of castor (90) 100-120 (150) days.

Phases of growth and development of castor beans:

  • seedlings;
  • 2nd real sheet;
  • 4-5th sheet;
  • the formation of inflorescences;
  • bloom;
  • maturation.

Crop rotation

In a crop rotation, castor beans are usually placed in a tilled field after winter wheat, corn, and legumes. Also, the predecessors can be winter crops going through a clean or busy fallow, spring and winter cereals going through a layer of perennial grasses and after tilled crops.

Castor oil can serve as a good predecessor for spring grain crops, sunflower, with good agricultural technology – winter wheat, and in some regions of the North Caucasus – winter.

Because of the danger of being affected by Fusarium, castor oil is returned to its original place in the crop rotation no earlier than after 8 years.

The root system of the castor bean depletes less water compared to sunflower and has a good effect on soil structure.

Fertilizer system

Castor beans are demanding on nutrients.

For the formation of 100 kg of seeds from the soil, 7.2 kg of nitrogen, 1.7 kg of phosphorus, 5.9 kg of potassium are absorbed.

The best fertilizer for castor beans is manure, which significantly increases the yield of seeds. According to the experiments of All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds, when manure was applied, the seed yield increased: in the Krasnodar Territory – by 34.7%, in Ukraine – by 41%, in the countries of Central Asia – by 26-28%. The recommended rate of manure application is 20 (30) t/ha for autumn tillage.

Castor oil responds especially well to the application of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. According to All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds and other scientific institutions, when N60-90P90 is applied, the seed yield increases by 16-20%. Recommended application rates for mineral fertilizers N20-40P40-80K40-60 (Kolomeichenko). According to other recommendations, P80-90K80-90, which are applied under autumn tillage, and N90 – in spring (Niklyaev).

Phosphorus fertilizers give a greater effect on chernozem soils, nitrogen fertilizers on gray soils.

Also high efficiency gives pre-sowing introduction of granulated superphosphate in doses of 10-20 kg/ha P2O5. In the conditions of the Stavropol Territory, the introduction of ammophos into rows is effective when sown at the rate of 60 kg/ha.

A good effect is given by top dressing during the growing season with nitrogen, phosphorus and organic fertilizers in 1-2 stages. If the main fertilizer was not applied, then top dressing is recommended to be carried out before the first inter-row cultivation. If the main fertilizer was applied, then top dressing is carried out a little later – at the beginning of the formation of the central brush. For top dressing, you can use ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and superphosphate. From local organic fertilizers for the same purposes – bird droppings and slurry. Top dressing at the rate of N20P20 should be applied to the moist soil layer to a depth of 8-10 cm.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for castor beans includes:

  • peeling following the harvesting of previous cereal crops;
  • plowing in August to a depth of 27-30 cm with plows with skimmers;
  • snow retention;
  • early spring harrowing and sanding;
  • 2-3 cultivations with harrowing.

According to the results of All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds experiments carried out in the Krasnodar Territory in areas prone to dust storms, flat-cut tillage, including two plowing with flat-cutters and deep nonmoldboard loosening of the soil, is of great positive importance.

Under castor beans, spring chiselling is effective.

To control weeds, the herbicide treflan is used, which is applied to the soil during pre-sowing cultivation at the rate of 6-8 kg/ha according to the preparation.

Sowing

For sowing, varietal, large and leveled seeds are used. The purity of the seed must be at least 98%, germination – at least 85%.

Before sowing, the seeds are treated with granosan with dye (2 kg/t of seeds) or TMTD (4 kg/t of seeds).

Sowing begins when the danger of frost has passed, and the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to (10) 12 °C. Early or late sowing leads to a noticeable decrease in seed yield.

Sowing method – dotted with row spacing of 70 cm, using SUPN-8 or SCH-6MF seeders.

The seeding rate for large-seeded varieties is 20-25 kg/ha, for small-seeded varieties – 10-12 kg/ha.

The sowing depth is 6-8 (10) cm and varies depending on the moisture content and mechanical composition of the soil. On heavy soils, a sowing depth of 6-8 cm is recommended, on light sandy soils – 10-12 cm.

Plant density depends on varietal characteristics and growing region and usually ranges from 45 to 60 thousand/ha (Vavilov). According to other data, the recommended plant density for branched varieties is 30-40 thousand/ha, for weakly branched varieties – 50-60 thousand/ha (Kolomeichenko).

Crop care

Care of castor bean crops includes pre-emergence harrowing to break up the soil crust.

In the presence of weeds, inter-row cultivation is carried out.

In the phase of the second true leaf, seedlings are thinned out, leaving the plants in a row at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other.

In the phase of 2-3 true leaves, it is advisable to carry out harrowing by seedlings.

After the emergence of seedlings, the aisles should be kept loose.

An important agricultural technique for castor beans is chasing plants,
which consists in removing the apical point of growth of the main shoot or buds of side branches. It is carried out with the formation of 4-5 true leaves. Chasing the main shoot helps to accelerate the development of brushes on the branches of the first order. If the buds of the lateral shoots are removed, then the development of the central brush improves and maturation accelerates.

In conditions of areas with sufficient moisture and during irrigation, it is advisable to carry out hilling, which reduces the lodging of plants.

Harvest

Ripening of castor bean pods occurs unevenly. First, the boxes ripen on the central brush, then on the brushes of other orders (lateral).

Harvesting requires relatively even maturation and low humidity for most of the pods. Therefore, for these purposes, drying on the vine (desiccation or defoliation) with magnesium chlorate is carried out, when the bolls on the plants are not yet cracked. During aerial spraying, the consumption of the drug is 15 kg/ha per 100 liters of working fluid. Desiccation is performed when the bolls of the central castor bean cluster turn brown, by this time the accumulation of dry matter and oil in the seeds ends. In 1-2 days after the treatment of crops with a desiccant, the leaves dry up, however, the drying of boxes and seeds on the vine occurs in 12-15 days in favorable weather. At this time, they begin harvesting.

Harvesting is carried out single-phase and two-phase. The single-phase method is applicable only for varieties with non-cracking boxes. For this method, a ККС-6 castor-bean harvester is used, which cuts the plants, breaks and splits the boxes, separates the heap and collects the castor seeds in a separate hopper.

With a two-phase method, grain combines equipped with special devices can be used. The resulting heap is immediately dried and cleaned. After that, threshing is carried out on the castor-bean thresher КЩМ-2.

Harvesting of cracking varieties of castor beans is carried out selectively, as the brushes ripen, in 2-3 terms.

Seeds with a moisture content of not more than 6% are laid for storage (Vavilov). According to other sources, no more than 8% (Kolomeichenko).

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Camelina

Camelina – oilseed crop. Sometimes it is considered as a minor early spring weed – Camelina sativa.

 
Camelina (Camelina sativa)
Camelina (Camelina sativa)
Source: commons.wikimedia.org
©Robert Flogaus-Faust (CC BY 4.0)

Economic importance

Camelina seeds contain 40-46% drying oil. Camelina oil finds its main application in the paint and varnish and soap industries. For food purposes, it is used to a limited extent due to low taste. Only fresh oil is used for food, as it quickly goes rancid during storage.

Cake from the seeds of camelina serves as a concentrated feed. 100 kg of cake correspond to 115 feed units. However, it is fed to animals in small quantities, since in large quantities it is harmful due to the presence of glycosides.

In Russia and the countries of the former USSR, spring camelina is mainly cultivated.

Cake can be used as an organic fertilizer.

 

Cultivation areas and yield

In Russia, the main sown areas of spring camelina are concentrated in Western and Eastern Siberia, Bashkiria and the Volga region.

In 1986, the sown area was about 10 thousand hectares.

Winter camelina is cultivated in the Saratov region in limited areas.

The average yield is 1.0-1.2 t/ha.

Botanical description

Spring camelina (Camelina saliva Czantz.) is an annual herbaceous plant of the Cabbage family (Brassicaceae).

Rod root.

The stems are well developed, thin, branching.

Plant height 50-80 cm.

Leaves lanceolate, on short petioles, entire or slightly serrated, covered with stiff hairs.

Inflorescence – brush. Flowers pale yellow, small.

Self-pollinating in northern regions, cross-pollinating in southern regions.

The fruit is a pear-shaped pod, 6-9 mm long, cracks when ripe, 6-8 seeds.

Seeds 1.5-2 mm, oblong-oval, red-brown. Weight of 1000 seeds 1-1.5 g.

Winter camelina (C. silvestris Waller). It differs from spring camelina in woody, strongly branched stem, strong pubescence of leaves and stems. The fruits are slightly smaller – 5-7 mm.

 

Biological features

The spring forms of camelina are undemanding to growing conditions.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-2 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -12 °C.

It tolerates drought relatively easily.

Prefers sandy and slightly saline soils.

Long daylight plants.

Vegetation

The vegetation period of spring camelina is 66-90 days. With the advancement of its crops to the north, the duration of the growing season is reduced.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of spring camelina are winter and tilled crops.

Fertilizer system

Spring camelina responds well to the application of mineral fertilizers.

Recommended fertilizer application rates are N30P45K30.

Tillage system

Camelina is demanding on careful pre-sowing tillage.

Sowing

Sowing starts early.

The sowing method is the usual ordinary.

The seeding rate is 8-10 kg/ha.

Sowing depth 2-3 cm.

Crop care

Caring for camelina crops consists in harrowing after germination.

Harvest

Seed harvesting begins in the phase of full ripeness, when the lower pods turn brown and the seeds harden.

Cleaning is carried out by converted combines.

Camelina seeds should be stored for storage with a moisture content of no more than 9%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Barbarea

Barbarea (winter cress or yellow rocket), also Barbarea, is an edible and fodder oilseed crop, also refers to the technical non-agricultural crops of the crop rotation, in many ways similar to rapeseed. In the world practice of agriculture rapeseed and Barbarea are often considered as one crop under the common name “rapeseed”.

Economic importance

The oil content in the seeds of Barbarea is 32 to 50%, protein – up to 20-23% protein, carbohydrates – up to 17%. Spring and winter forms of Barbarea are used in agricultural production.

Oil of Barbarea refers to semi-drying and is used for food and technical purposes.

Barbarea can be grown as a fodder crop for green mass, silage, haylage, grass meal. For this purpose it can be cultivated as the main crop, in intercrops and after haying. Fodder value is similar to that of rapeseed: 100 kg of green mass is 16 fodder units and contains 3 kg of protein or 190 g per 1 fodder unit. Green mass is well eaten by animals, the digestibility coefficient is 70-80%.

Barbarea can also serve as a green fertilizer.

It is a good honeycomb.

Oilcake and meal of winter Barbarea (varieties with a reduced content of erucic acid and glycosinolates) are considered good concentrated feed for livestock. Cake and meal from seeds of common varieties can also be fed to animals, but in small quantities. 1 kg of cake corresponds to 1 feed unit.

Crop history

Originating in the Mediterranean.

Cultivation areas and yield

Originating in the Mediterranean.

Areas of cultivation and yields
As a fodder crop, Barbarea is cultivated in Eastern and Western Siberia, in the Central Black Earth and Non-Black Earth zones of Russia, as well as in the north of Kazakhstan, Ukraine and the Baltic countries.

In terms of seed yield, Barbarea is inferior to rapeseed, but in Siberian conditions it steadily matures, unlike rapeseed.

The yield of spring Barbarea seeds can reach 1.7-2.0 t/ha if all the complex of technological methods are followed and all the factors are taken into account, which ensures high and stable yields with the use of modern varieties, plant protection means and machinery system.

Yield of green mass when used for fodder purposes reaches 25-40 t/ha.

Botanical description

Spring Barbarea (Brassica tara L. ssp. oleifera campestris) and winter Barbarea (Brassica tara L. ssp. oleifera automnalis) are annual herbaceous plants in the cabbage family (Brassicaceae).

In addition, hybrids have been bred that may be of great interest for agricultural production. The perko hybrid is a polyploid hybrid of winter Barbarea and Beijing cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). The tifon hybrid is a hybrid of winter Barbarea and turnip.

Tap root, well developed, poorly branched, penetrates into the soil to the depth of 1.5-2 m.

Stem is erect, branched, blue with dense waxy bloom, pubescent underneath.

The plant height is 100-170 cm.

Rosemary leaves are lyre-like, feathery-incised, with sparse hard pubescence without waxy bloom. Middle leaves are elongate spike-shaped. Upper leaves are oblong-lanceolate. Cauline leaves are sessile, covering the stem in its lower part entirely.

Inflorescence is scutellum; fruits have a longer beak than in rape.

Weight of 1,000 seeds 1.6-3.5 g.

Biological features

Barbarea is a long-day plant.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-3°C. Sprouts can tolerate frosts down to -3 … -5 °C. Plants are able to vegetate at 2-3°C and survive autumn frosts as low as -8°C.

Sharp temperature fluctuations in spring after snow melt pose a great danger for winter Barbarea.

Winter Barbarea and perko are considered more winter-hardy than rape due to the relatively lower location of the points of growth from the soil surface (0.5 cm).

Barbarea is very demanding to moisture. Water consumption during the growing season is 1.5-2.0 times higher than that of winter wheat. Transpiration coefficient is 500-700.

Can grow on all types of soils, except heavy clayey and sandy, acidic and waterlogged soils. Demanding to soil fertility.

Vegetation

The period from sprouting to stemming is 30-40 days, after which the rapid growth of vegetative mass begins.

Spring growth and development phases of winter Barbarea and perko come 5-7 days earlier than rapeseed.

The period from sprouting to maturing is 75-90 days.

The following growth and development phases are noted in winter Barbarea:

  • sprouting;
  • rosette formation (6-8 leaves);
  • stemming;
  • flowering;
  • pod formation;
  • milky state of seeds;
  • wax maturity;
  • full ripeness.

Crop rotation

Cultivation technology of winter Barbarea requires taking into account its biological characteristics: small seeds, slow growth and development in the initial phase of development, high requirements for nutrients and soil fertility.

The best predecessors of winter Barbarea for seeds are black and fallow, perennial grasses, silage crops, annual grasses for green fodder (except Sudan grass). In the Northern Caucasus – also grain crops. In crop rotation it should not be returned to the field earlier than 4 years and should be placed after cruciferous crops as well as on fields weedy of the cruciferous family (Brassicaceae).

The best predecessors for spring Barbarea are cereals after fallow, row crops, turnover of perennial grasses.

The technology of growing winter and spring Barbarea for green fodder is similar to growing rape for the same purpose: winter Barbarea is best preceded by layer or the rotation of the perennial grasses, legumes, row crops, winter and spring grain crops.

In crop rotations, as well as rapeseed, due to its powerful root system, Barbarea is considered a phytosanitary crop.

Fertilizer system

Barbarea responds well to fertilizer, especially nitrogen and potassium.

It is recommended to apply manure in the amount of 20-30 t/ha under the steam-intensive crop. In the Northern Caucasus, N90-120P60-90K60-90 is applied under plowing to obtain high yields of seeds. According to the recommendations of the All-Russian Institute of Fodder, in the Non-Chernozem zone 90 kg/ha of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers are applied under plowing, 50 kg/ha of nitrogen is applied under pre-sowing cultivation, and 60-90 kg/ha is applied in early spring fertilizing. It is advisable to calculate the rate of fertilizer application for the planned yield, taking into account the reserves of nutrients in the soil and their removal with the harvest.

When growing winter Barbarea for green fodder between the first and second hay cutting it is desirable to apply nitrogen fertilizers with an approximate rate of 60 kg/ha a.d.m.

Tillage system

Soil treatment for winter Barbarea is the same as for rape.

Sowing

Sowing of winter Barbarea is started 2-3 weeks earlier than winter crops, so that by winter the plants have formed a powerful rosette of leaves, a deep penetrating root system and have been hardened.

Sowing methods of winter and spring Barbarea are ordinary row or broad-row.

Seeding rates for winter and spring Barbarea are 12-15 kg/ha for ordinary row sowing and 6-8 kg/ha for broad-row sowing.

The depth of sowing winter Barbarea seeds is 2-3 cm (Vavilov; according to other data, 0.5-2 cm, Kolomeychenko), and if the top soil layer dries up to (3) 4-5 cm.

When growing winter Barbarea for green mass, sowing is started early in spring and is carried out simultaneously with sowing of early spring crops.

Sowing of spring Barbarea is carried out early, simultaneously with the sowing of early spring crops.

The depth of sowing of spring Barbarea seeds is 3-4 cm.

When using winter Barbarea for green conveyor, it is sown in August. Seeding rate is 2.5 million germinated seeds per hectare, or 6-7 kg/ha. The choice of optimal timing of sowing determines the resistance of plants to the conditions of overwintering. To do this, the plants must go under the winter, forming a rosette of 6-8 leaves. To improve overwintering conditions, it is desirable to create strip of white mustard seeds at the rate of 1-1.5 kg/ha mixed with winter Barbarea seeds.

Winter Barbarea for green fodder can be grown according to the technology with under-seeded crops. In this case it is sown as usual in autumn and mixed with vetch, oats and annual ryegrass in early spring. Seeding rates in this case are 120 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha and 25-30 kg/ha. Sowing is carried out by disc seeding machines across the rows of winter rape. Sowing depth on heavy soils is 3-4 cm, on light soils – 5-6 cm.

Winter Barbarea can be sown in mixtures with other crops, such as oats, peas, sunflower, oil radish, white mustard. Recommended seeding rates: rape (5-6 kg/ha), oil radish or white mustard (20-25 kg/ha), oats (100-130 kg/ha), sunflower (10-15 kg/ha), peas (90-100 kg/ha). In this case, first sow a mixture of peas, oats, and sunflowers, then roll the soil and sow a mixture of winter and spring cabbage crops.

Crop care

The care of the winter Barbarea is similar to that of rape.

Plant protection

To control the pests in the Barbarea crops, spraying with metaphos 0.2-0.3 kg/ha a.m. is used. Treatment during flowering phase is not carried out so as not to cause death of bees.

To control weeds, you can use herbicide Treflan 25% with a rate of 2.5-3 l/ha, which is made under pre-sowing cultivation.

The main diseases of rape are false powdery mildew, Alternaria, powdery mildew.

Harvest

Winter Barbarea are characterized by an extended period of seed maturity.

Harvesting is carried out in a single phase at the onset of the phase of full ripeness using combine harvesters adjusted for harvesting of small-seeded crops.

In dry weather, two-phase harvesting is preferable. Plants are mowed in swaths when the lower leaves fall off, about half of the pods on the plant turn lemon-yellow, and seed moisture is 30-40%. Swaths are threshed as they dry out and when seed moisture is 10-11%. In wet autumn threshing is carried out when the humidity of the seeds does not exceed 20% with immediate cleaning and drying to 10-12%.

When growing winter Barbarea for green fodder, its harvesting is similar to that of rape used for the same purposes.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Rapeseed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) is a promising food and fodder oilseed crop, also belongs to the technical row crops of crop rotation.

 
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)
Source: flickr.com
©Harry Rose (CC BY 2.0)

Economic importance

As of 1986, rapeseed was considered the main oilseed crop in 28 countries around the world.

Rape seeds contain 32 to 50% oil and up to 23% protein. Of all the oilseeds of the cabbage family, winter rape ranks first in terms of oil content in seeds (45-50%). In addition, the seeds of winter forms contain up to 20% protein and 17% carbohydrates. Semi-drying rapeseed oil can be used for food and technical purposes (iodine value 94-112).

In the seeds of spring rape, the oil content is 35-45%, protein – 21%, carbohydrates – 17-18%. The oil is slightly drying, used for food and technical purposes.

The seeds of old varieties of rapeseed contained a large amount of erucic acid (37-50%) and glycosinolates (5-7%) harmful to animals, which gave the meal a bitter taste and negatively affected the thyroid gland, especially in birds and pigs. At present, varieties with a low content of erucic acid (0-5%) and glucosinolates (0.3-0.6%) have been bred, while the content of oleic acid has been increased to 60-70%. The content of linolenic acid is 10-13%.

Rapeseed oil is important in the food, soap, printing and other industries.

The yield of cakes (meal) from seeds is 56%, and the protein content in them reaches 38-40% (Vavilov; according to other sources, up to 45-49%, Kolomeichenko), which is well balanced in terms of amino acid composition. Cake and meal of non-eruk varieties serve as good food. Meal from the seeds of ordinary varieties of rapeseed contains 6-7% glycosinolates, while non-erucic – less than 0.5%, and therefore can be compared with soybeans. Cake and meal from seeds of ordinary varieties can be fed to animals, but in small quantities. 100 kg of cake correspond to 100 feed units.

Rapeseed can be used in intermediate and post-harvest crops for the production of fodder – green mass, silage, haylage, grass meal. 100 kg of green mass correspond to (11) 16 feed units and contain 30 g of protein or 190 g (Vavilov; according to other sources, 120-140 g of digestible protein, Kolomeichenko) and 140-150 g of sugar per 1 feed unit. The green mass of winter cabbage crops is distinguished by high fodder qualities, contains a large amount of protein and mineral salts, but little fiber. The chemical composition of dry matter: crude protein 15-20%, fats 4%, fiber 14-16%. The content in 1 kg of green mass of carotene is 60-95 mg. In terms of amino acid composition, it surpasses winter cereals and is not inferior to clover and alfalfa. The eatability of green mass by agricultural animals reaches 93%, and organic matter is characterized by high digestibility (70-80%). The disadvantage is the low content of dry matter (9-11%). Feeding green mass increases the productivity and fat content of milk.

In terms of green mass formation in early spring, winter rapeseed exceeds winter rye. It also regrows intensively after cutting and has versatility of use. For fodder, winter rape can be used as a spring crop, while after sowing in the spring it grows rapidly, but does not bloom, and with sufficient moisture in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone, it can produce 2-3 cuttings. For multi-cutting use (3-4 times), winter rapeseed, due to the possibility of growing from axillary buds and meristem tissue of the stem, is 20-30% more productive than winter rapeseed and perko.

Rape is of great importance in intermediate crops (winter, early spring, hay and stubble crops). When sown in autumn, green fodder can be obtained already in early May (after 30-40 days, for seeds – after 60-80 days), and after harvesting in forest-steppe conditions, almost any annual fodder crops can be cultivated. However, the largest yields at such sowing dates are heat-loving crops such as corn, sorghum, sorghum-sudanese hybrids, sudan grass, mogar, paiza, millet, chumiza and sunflowers alone or mixed with high protein plants or fodder cabbages, kohlrabi and rutabagawhen planting seedlings.

In spring forms of rapeseed, mowing ripeness occurs 60-70 days after the beginning of the growing season.

When growing winter rapeseed in a busy fallow, it is advisable to sow a vetch-oat mixture to it in spring. Thus, it is possible to additionally obtain two crops of green mass (the first – due to rapeseed or Barbarea, the second – due to the vetch-oat mixture). At the same time, there is enough time for a good preparation of the field for sowing winter crops.

Winter rapeseed for green fodder is especially valuable for feeding pigs and fattening cattle. In the green conveyor system, it is more expedient to feed it in early spring and late autumn, when other green fodder is scarce. In late autumn, it can be both mowed and bled, thus increasing the grazing period by a month.

Winter rapeseed in its pure form is well ensiled, but can also be used to make silage with good quality straw or dried grass in a chopped form, or added to corn, sorghum, sunflower and other crops silage to increase nutritional value. Rapeseed silage contains: 87.3% water; 2.4% protein; 0.1% fat; 1.3% fiber; 2.7% ash and 5.0% nitrogen-free extractives; 1.9 mg/kg carotene. Digestibility coefficients: protein and fat – 72%; fiber – 53%; nitrogen-free extractives – 75%.

Winter rapeseed is of great agrotechnical importance in crop rotations. It improves the physical properties and phytosanitary condition of the soil. Due to its fast growth and highly developed above-ground phytomass, rapeseed is good at suppressing weeds.

Good honey plant. The collection of honey from rapeseed reaches 100 kg/ha.

Rapeseed can be used as a green manure.

Rapeseed is widely used for biofuel production.

Crop history

Rapeseed originates from the Mediterranean region, from where it came to India and other Asian Asias.

Rape was introduced into the culture more than 4000 years ago.

In Europe, it became widespread as an agricultural crop in the 16th century.

In Russia, rapeseed began to be cultivated in the 18th century.

Cultivation areas and yield

The area under rapeseed in the world in 1986 was more than 13 million hectares. Its main producers were India (3.9 million ha), China (3.7 million ha), Canada (3.0 million ha). Significant areas were in Germany, Poland, Sweden, France, Finland.

By the end of the 20th century, the area under rapeseed (including Barbarea) amounted to 24 million hectares, or 13% of the total sown area of ​​all oilseeds. The total gross harvest amounted to 34 million tons, or 12% of the total production of oilseeds. Productivity is 1.5 t/ha.

Under good wintering conditions, winter rapeseed usually yields more than spring rapeseed.

In Canada, rapeseed is one of the most highly profitable crops due to the development and use of non-erucic varieties with a low content of glucosinolates. The growth of profitability was facilitated by the transition of production and processing of rapeseed to an industrial basis.

In the USSR in 1982, the sown area of ​​rapeseed grown for seeds was 68,000 ha. For commercial purposes, winter rapeseed was grown. The main sown areas were concentrated in Western Ukraine. The yield of seeds is 1.5-1.8 t/ha.

In 2001-2005 200 thousand hectares or 4% of the total sown area of ​​oilseeds were occupied under rapeseed and colza in Russia. The gross harvest of seeds amounted to 200 thousand tons.

The yield is 1.2-1.6 t/ha for spring, 1.5-2.9 t/ha for winter. When using industrial growing technology, in compliance with the whole complex of technological methods and factors, using modern intensive non-erucic and low glucosinolate varieties, plant protection products, the yield of winter rapeseed seeds can reach 3.0-3.5 t/ha, spring – 2.0- 2.5 t/ha. So in the collective farm “Borets” (Ramensky district of the Moscow region, 1982) a crop of spring rapeseed seeds was obtained 2.9 t/ha.

In Russia, at present, winter rapeseed is cultivated only in the North-West, in the Central Black Earth zone, and in the North Caucasus, where sharp temperature fluctuations are not typical in winter and early spring.

For fodder purposes, rapeseed is grown in Eastern and Western Siberia, in the Central Black Earth and Non-Chernozem zones of Russia, as well as in the north of Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and the Baltic countries.

The yield of winter rapeseed for green mass is 25-40 t/ha. In post-cutting crops after annual grasses, under conditions of wet and cool weather in the second half of summer, the yield of winter rapeseed can reach 30-40 t/ha. Rapeseed does not tolerate hot dry weather well, while the susceptibility to diseases and pests increases.

In stubble crops after harvesting peas, winter and spring cereals for grain, the yield of green mass reaches 15-20 t/ha.

Botanical description

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg. (winter – biennis , spring – annua)) belongs to annual herbaceous plants of the Brassicaceae family.

The tap root, developed, slightly branched, penetrates the soil to a depth of 1.5-2 (3) m.

The stem is erect, strongly branched, covered with a thick wax coating, gray, pubescent below.

Plant height 100-130 (170) cm.

The leaves are gray-green, also have a waxy coating. The form is different. The lower leaves are lyre-pinnately incised, on petioles. Medium – elongated spear-shaped. The upper ones are elongated-lanceolate, sessile, half covering the stem.

The inflorescence is a loose brush. The flowers are light yellow or golden yellow, large.

The fruit is a pod that cracks when ripe, narrow, smooth, with a spout 1/5-1/6 of the length of the pod.

The seeds are spherical, the surface is finely cellular, black, grayish black or dark brown. Diameter 1.5-2 mm. The weight of 1000 seeds of winter rapeseed is 3-7 g, of spring rapeseed – 2.6-5.0 g.

Biological features

Rapeseed is a long day plant.

Rape seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of (1) 2-3 °C.

Seedlings are able to withstand frosts of -3 … -5 ° С. Plants continue growing even at temperatures of +2…+3 °C and tolerate autumn frosts down to -8 °C. Winter rapeseed can withstand temperatures down to -8…-10 °С.

The optimum temperature for the growth of the vegetative mass is 18-20 °C, during flowering and seed ripening – 23-25 ​​°C.

The growth point of winter rapeseed plants is at a height of 2-6 cm.

Rapeseed is a moisture-demanding crop, during the growing season it consumes 1.5-2.0 times more water than winter wheat. The transpiration coefficient is 500-700. Sufficient moisture is especially important during the flowering and seeding phases.

Able to grow on all types of soils, except for heavy clay, sandy (due to low water-holding capacity) and waterlogged. It reacts badly to increased soil acidity.

Winter forms usually hibernate well if there is sufficient snow cover, that is, more than 15 cm. According to long-term observations of the All-Union Research Institute of Feeds, in the conditions of the central regions of the Non-Chernozem Zone of Russia, winter rapeseed does not die in winter, but in spring from sudden temperature changes, when the snow cover has already melted.

Sowing winter forms of rapeseed in autumn and hardening in autumn provide high winter hardiness of modern varieties.

Spring rapeseed is considered less demanding on soil and climatic conditions, therefore it has become more widespread in Russia.

Vegetation

Rape has winter and spring forms.

The duration from germination to ripening in spring rapeseed is 95-110 days, in winter rapeseed – 290-320 days.

Spring vegetation in winter forms begins when the average daily temperature is about 2 °C. Two weeks after the start of the growing season, the phase of stemming and budding begins. Flowering lasts 25-30 days, and 25-30 days pass from the end of flowering to ripening.

With warm and moist soil, the seeds germinate in 4-5 days.

The duration of the period for spring forms from germination to the formation of a rosette is 20-30 days, to stalking – 30-40 days, after which the vegetative mass begins to grow rapidly. Until flowering – 35-50 days, flowering lasts 20-35 days.

Winter rapeseed forms a rosette of 5-9 leaves in autumn, and the stem begins to develop in the spring of the following year.

Development phases of winter rapeseed:

  • seedlings;
  • rosette formation (6-8 leaves);
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • pod formation;
  • milky state of seeds;
  • wax ripeness;
  • full ripeness.

Crop rotation

The technology of rapeseed cultivation requires taking into account its biological characteristics: small seed, slow growth and development in the initial phase of development, high requirements for nutrients and soil fertility.

The best predecessors of winter rapeseed when grown for seeds are black and busy fallows, silage crops, perennial grasses, annual grasses for green fodder, in addition to Sudanese grass, in the North Caucasus – also cereal crops. Return to its original place in the crop rotation is possible not earlier than after 4 years (for spring – after 4-5 years). Cruciferous crops and fields infested with weeds from the cruciferous family ( Brassicaceae) are poor precursors . The placement of winter rapeseed in sugar beet crop rotations should also be avoided due to the danger of nematode breeding.

The best predecessors in the cultivation of winter rapeseed for green fodder are the layer or turnover of the layer of perennial grasses, legumes, tilled, winter and spring crops

In post-cutting crops, winter rapeseed is placed after annual grasses, early potatoes and other crops. In stubble – after peas, winter and early spring cereals.

The best predecessors of spring rapeseed are grain crops coming after fallow, as well as tilled crops , perennial grass layer turnover, black fallow, leguminous crops , cereal-bean mixtures for green fodder. It is not recommended to alternate spring rapeseed with sunflower, clover, sugar beet and millet in crop rotation.

In crop rotations, rapeseed performs a phytosanitary function. Thanks to the deep penetrating root system of winter rapeseed (up to 3 m), the soil structure improves and its fertility increases.

Winter rapeseed can serve as a good predecessor for winter and spring cereals, corn and other crops.

Fertilizer system

Rapeseed is a crop demanding on soil fertility.

For the formation of 100 kg of seeds, rapeseed consumes 1.5-2 times more nutrients than cereals or annual grasses.

The approximate removal of nutrients from the soil from 100 kg of seed yield is: N – 5-6 kg; P2O5 – 2.4-3.5 kg; K2O – 4.0-6.0 kg; CaO – 4-7 kg, MgO – 1.4-2.2 kg, sulfur – 4.0 kg. Separately, for spring rapeseed: N – 5.4-6.2 kg; P2O5 – 2.4-3.4 kg; K2O – 9.4 kg; CaO – 11.6 kg.

Rape responds well to the application of fertilizers, primarily nitrogen and potassium. According to the data of the All-Union Research Institute of Forage, when grown for green mass, rapeseed uses: N – 2.6 kg, P2O5 – 0.91 kg, K2O – 3.9 kg to form 100 kg of dry matter.

Under a fallow-occupying crop (any predecessor) or fallow, it is recommended to apply 20-30 t/ha of manure.

In the conditions of the North Caucasus, to obtain high yields of seeds, N90-120P60-90K60-90 is applied for plowing. For the Nonchernozem zone, it is recommended to apply for plowing at 90 kg/ha of a.i. potash and phosphate fertilizers, for pre-sowing cultivation (30) 40-50 kg/ha a.i. nitrogen and in early spring in top dressing 60-90 kg/ha (All-Russian Research Institute of Fodder). In general, it is recommended to apply N45P60K90 for the main treatment.

Early spring top dressing is also recommended to be divided into two: the first is carried out on frozen and thawed soil, the second – in 2-3 weeks.

Fractional nitrogen fertilization increases the protein content, but slightly reduces the fat content of the seeds. Any nitrogen fertilizers are suitable for nitrogen fertilizing, but ammonium sulfate is more effective, as it additionally contains sulfur, to which winter rapeseed responds well.

When sowing, it is recommended to apply phosphorus P10-20 to the rows .

Phosphorus promotes the development of the root system, increases the productivity of seeds and accelerates their maturation.

It is advisable to calculate the fertilizer application rates for the planned harvest, taking into account soil fertility and the removal of nutrients with the harvest.

When growing rapeseed for green fodder, after the first mowing, it is advisable to fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers with a consumption rate of 60 kg/ha of a.i.

Liming is carried out on acidic soils.

Sulfur fertilizers are also recommended for forest and sandy soils.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for winter rapeseed includes peeling, plowing and subsequent semi-fallow cultivation. After non-steam predecessors, plowing is carried out with plows with skimmers of 20-22 cm with simultaneous harrowing.

The main tillage for spring rapeseed is similar to that for early spring cereals. In the steppe zone of Russia, it is recommended to carry out methods of accumulation of moisture in winter (snow retention). In the case of using flat-cut tillage, which preserves the stubble before winter, herbicides should be applied in spring before sowing spring rapeseed. Pre-sowing treatment should ensure the preservation of the moisture of the upper soil layer and the evenness of the surface.

In the tillage system, it is important to pay attention to leveling and cutting the soil, as this is a small-seeded crop. The roughness of the soil surface leads to variegation of the stem, wetting, loss of seed yield during harvesting.

Before sowing, the leveling of the soil surface is carried out by cultivators in an aggregate with harrows, trains and rollers. The depth of pre-sowing treatment is 4-5 cm.

With early spring sowing, tillage is carried out in the same way as for other small-seeded crops.

In the spring, before sowing spring rapeseed, two-track harrowing is done with toothed harrows (during autumn plowing) or needle harrows (during flat-cutting). Combined units are more efficient. For this purpose, it is also possible to use beet cultivators with flat-cutting working bodies, harrows and trains. The depth of pre-sowing cultivation, depending on soil moisture, reaches 5-7 cm. After that, it is advisable to roll dry soil with ringed rollers. Under presowing cultivation, if necessary, soil herbicides are applied.

Sowing

Sowing of winter rape starts 2-3 weeks earlier than winter crops, so that the plants can form a powerful rosette of leaves, deeply penetrating the root system and undergo hardening.

Sowing of spring rapeseed is started simultaneously with early spring crops. However, in weedy fields, sowing can be started a little later (after the destruction of weed seedlings using pre-sowing cultivation).

The method of sowing spring and winter rapeseed is the usual ordinary and wide-row with row spacing of 30 or 45 cm. Grain or grain-grass seeders are used for sowing. If necessary, preliminary and / or post-sowing packing is carried out.

The seeding rate (spring and winter) for the usual row sowing method is 12-15 kg/ha (also separately, for spring rapeseed the recommended seeding rate is 9-12 kg/ha), for wide-row sowing – 6-8 kg/ha (also separately , for spring rapeseed the recommended seeding rate is 7-8 kg/ha).

The depth of sowing seeds of winter rapeseed is 2-3 cm (on heavy soils 1.5-2 cm, on light soils – 3 cm), in case of drying of the upper soil layer, it is increased to (3) 4-5 cm. The sowing depth of spring rapeseed seeds is 3-4 cm.

After sowing, it is recommended to carry out packing using ringed rollers.

When growing winter rapeseed for green mass, it is sown in early spring, simultaneously with the sowing of early spring crops.

When using winter rapeseed for the green conveyor, it can be sown in August (for the forest-steppe zone – from July 25 to August 5). However, earlier dates in mowing or stubble crops (II-III decade of July) allows you to get a slightly larger yield than sowing in the first decade of August. The seeding rate is 2.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, or 12-15 kg/ha. The choice of optimal sowing dates determines the resistance of plants to overwintering conditions. To do this, the plants must go before winter, forming a rosette of 6-8 leaves. To improve overwintering conditions, it is desirable to create wings of white mustard, the seeds of which are mixed with winter rape seeds at the rate of 1-1.5 kg/ha.

Winter rapeseed for green fodder can be grown using technology with undersown crops. In this case, it is sown, as usual, in the fall, and early in the spring a mixture of common vetch, oats and annual ryegrass is sown to it. Seeding rates in this case are 120 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha and 25-30 kg/ha. Sowing is carried out with disc seeders across the rows of winter rapeseed. Sowing depth on heavy soils is 3-4 cm, on light soils – 5-6 cm.

Winter rapeseed can be sown in crops mixed with other crops, such as oats, peas, sunflowers, oilseed radish, white mustard. Recommended seeding rates: rapeseed (5-6 kg/ha), oilseed radish or white mustard (20-25 kg/ha), oats (100-130 kg/ha), sunflower (10-15 kg/ha), peas ( 90-100 kg/ha). In this case, a mixture of peas, oats and sunflower is first sown, then the soil is rolled and a mixture of winter and spring cabbage crops is sown.

In stubble crops (in the first decade of August), winter rapeseed is sown separately or mixed with other crops of the same family. The seeding rate is 2.5 million viable seeds or 12-15 kg/ha.

Crop care

In autumn, after sowing, in case of formation of a soil crust, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out. If necessary, rolling is also carried out after sowing.

When the winter rapeseed plants reach the 4-6 leaf stage, it is desirable to carry out autumn harrowing using light or medium tooth harrows at a machine speed of 4-5 km/h. On seed wide-row crops of winter rapeseed, inter-row cultivation begins with the formation of the second pair of leaves. If necessary, a second cultivation can be carried out before the rows close.

Winter activities in winter rape crops should be aimed at protecting plants from freezing, ice crust formation and soaking. After the beginning of the spring growing season, top dressing is carried out and then harrowing across the rows. On wide-row crops of winter rapeseed, inter-row cultivation is also carried out.

In crops of spring rapeseed in the phase of 4-5 true leaves, weeds are destroyed by seedlings using tooth harrows in the afternoon. On wide-row crops, inter-row cultivation is carried out 2-3 times to a depth of 5-6 and 6-8 cm. To protect young plants from sprinkling with soil, special devices are used.

To combat weeds, you can use the herbicide treflan 25% with a consumption rate of 2.5-3 l/ha for pre-sowing cultivation.

To control weeds, it is desirable to give preference to agricultural practices.

An effective method of control in crops of winter rapeseed for green fodder is mowing weeds at a height of 10-12 cm a month after the emergence of rapeseed seedlings. After mowing, rapeseed grows quickly, forms powerful leaves and further suppresses weeds.

Plant protection

To control pests in rape crops, spraying with metaphos 0.2-0.3 kg/ha a.i. is used. Treatment in the flowering phase of rapeseed is not carried out so as not to cause the death of bees.

The main diseases of rapeseed are downy mildew, alternariosis, powdery mildew.

Harvest

Winter rape is characterized by an extended period of seed ripening, and the pods are easily cracked. Therefore, delaying the optimal harvesting time leads to seed losses. However, premature harvesting also results in poor quality, puny seeds and yield loss.

Harvesting is carried out in one phase, at the onset of full ripeness, using grain harvesters adjusted for harvesting small-seeded crops. The single-phase method is more appropriate in the absence of weeds and seed moisture content of at least 18%.

In dry weather, it is better to use a two-phase cleaning method. To do this, the plants are mowed into rolls when the lower leaves fall off, and about half of the pods on the plants become lemon yellow with a seed moisture content of 30-40%, and the seeds in them become brown and black. The windrows are threshed as they dry out at a seed moisture content of 10-11% (approximately 4-7 days after mowing), and if the autumn is wet – no more than 20% with immediate cleaning and drying to a moisture content of 10-12%. In hot and dry weather, windrow threshing should be carried out in the morning, evening or at night, in this case, seed losses are reduced and their crushing is reduced.

Cleaned seeds should be stored for storage at a moisture content of no more than 8%.

When growing rapeseed for green fodder with two cuttings, the first cutting is carried out after 50-60 days from emergence, when the height of the plants is 50-60 cm, at the cutting height – 10-12 cm. The second cutting is carried out after (45) 48-50 days after the first, at a height of 5-8 cm. With three-cut use, the first cut is carried out after 35-45 days from emergence, with a plant height of 30 cm. The second cut is 35-50 days after the first, the third – after 50-60 days after the second (or used for grazing). After the first and second, it is desirable to fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers 3-4 days after mowing. Three-legged use is advisable only if there is sufficient moisture, therefore, in the steppe zone, this is possible only under irrigation conditions.

Mowing for green fodder is carried out by any forage harvester. Since rapeseed is a good honey plant, harvesting during the flowering phase should be done early in the morning and late in the evening to protect the bees.

When growing winter rapeseed for green fodder using technology with subsowing crops (sowing vetch, oats, annual ryegrass), with sufficient moisture and nutrient supply, it can produce 3-4 cuts with a total yield of 60-70 t/ha of green mass. In this case, the first cut consists of winter rapeseed, which is harvested in the budding phase – the beginning of flowering at a cut height of 10-12 cm. The second mowing is carried out in the phase of mass flowering of the sowing vetch at a height of 6-8 cm. The third and fourth cuttings include mainly annual ryegrass, they are carried out at the beginning of the heading of ryegrass. The fourth cut (otava) is suitable for grazing. This technology makes it possible to confine oneself to two cuttings (excluding ryegrass), and then to prepare the field for sowing winter cereals. In this case, a busy fallow is obtained, the productivity of which is 1.5 times greater than the usual sowing of vetch-oat or pea-oat mixture.

For harvesting for silage, rapeseed is best used in unground form. To reduce the moisture content of raw materials, 1 part of chopped straw is added to 3-5 parts of green mass (by dry matter).

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Mustard

Mustard (Sinapis) is an oilseed crop. Gray mustard, or Sarepskaya, and white mustard are of economic importance.

Economic importance

The oil content in the seeds of gray mustard is (34) 35-47%, white – (25) 30-40%. The iodine value of the oil obtained from mustard seeds is 92-119.

Mustard (fatty) oil is characterized by high taste qualities. It is used for food purposes: in the canning, baking and confectionery industries, as well as in the production of soap, textile and pharmaceutical industries.

Mustard seeds also contain essential oil: in gray – 0.5-1.7%, in white – 0.1-1.1%, which is used in the perfume industry.

Powder with a specific burning taste is made from mustard cake, which is used for the preparation of table mustard and for the production of mustard plasters, phytin and essential oil. The quality of mustard powder depends on the content of essential oil in it, which is approximately 1-1.5%. It is not recommended to use for fodder purposes, as it contains toxic glycosides. Cake can be used as organic fertilizer.

White mustard in the phase before the formation of the pods can serve as an early green fodder or green manure. 100 kg of green mass correspond to 11 (12) feed units. The green mass is well eaten by farm animals and has milk-producing qualities. It also serves as a support plant in mixed crops, such as with peas, vetch and other lodging legumes. Good honey plant.

The stubble mass of mustard in summer crops contains more nutrients and less fiber than in spring crops, therefore, it expands the possibilities of farms in the production of green fodder and silage.

Due to the short growing season, mustard can be used as a stubble and catch crop, as well as for rock crops.

Crop history

Gray mustard is considered a very ancient culture. In the wild, it is found in Central Asia, China, the Himalayas, Transcaucasia, therefore Southwest Asia is considered its homeland.

White mustard is native to the Mediterranean.

In Russia, both types of mustard began to be cultivated at the end of the 18th century.

Cultivation areas and yield

Blue mustard is cultivated in the countries of Asia Minor, Egypt, India, China, as well as in Europe (France, Germany, Holland, etc.).

In Russia, the main (more than half of the entire country) sown areas of blue mustard are concentrated in the steppe regions of the Volga region (Volgograd, Astrakhan, Saratov regions), in the North Caucasus (Rostov region, Stavropol Territory), in Western Siberia. Cultivated in Kazakhstan.

White mustard is grown mainly in the humid regions of the Non-Chernozem zone, in small areas in the Central Black Earth zone, Western and Eastern Siberia. Cultivation areas extend up to 61-62 °N.

There are no official statistics on this culture in the world. In Russia, general statistical reporting has been established for gray and white mustard.

The sown area of ​​gray and white mustard in 1986 in the USSR was more than 250 thousand hectares with a seed yield of 1.0-1.5 t/ha. The yield of green mass of the white mountain reaches 20-25 t/ha.

For 2001-2005 about 100 thousand hectares or 1% of the total sown area of ​​oilseeds were occupied under gray and white mustard in Russia. The gross seed harvest was 60 thousand tons or 1% of the total production of oilseeds with a yield of 0.4-0.7 t/ha.

Botanical description

Gray mustard (Brassica junceae Czern.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) belong to the Cabbage family (Brassicaceae).

Gray mustard

Gray mustard refers to annual herbaceous plants.

The root is taproot, penetrates to a depth of 2-3 m.

The stem is branched, gray with wax coating, pubescent at the base.

Plant height (0.5) 0.6-1.5 m.

Lower leaves on petioles, lyre-pinnate. The upper leaves are sessile or on short petioles, entire, oblong-linear.

Inflorescence – brush. The flowers are quadruple type, bisexual, bright yellow, with a strong honey smell. Self-pollinating, cross-pollination may occur at high temperatures.

The fruit is a thin, oblong pod, 3-5 cm long, with a long awl-shaped spout, easily cracking when ripe.

Seeds are spherical, 1.2-1.8 mm in diameter, reddish-brown or black with a bluish bloom or yellow with a cellular surface. The mass of 1000 seeds is 2-4 g.

White mustard

White mustard, unlike gray mustard, has a more branched stem.

The stem and leaves are covered with dense stiff hairs.

The fruit is a tuberculate pod, with hard hairs, ending in a long flat xiphoid spout, 5-6-seed. Pods do not (usually) crack when overripe.

Seeds are spherical, smooth, 1.8-2.5 mm in diameter, cream or pale yellow. Weight of 1000 seeds 5-6 (8) g.

Biological features

Gray mustard

Gray mustard is undemanding to heat.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of (1) 2-3 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to (-3) -4 … -5 ° С.

Drought-resistant.

Prefers chernozem and chestnut soils. Poorly tolerates heavy, floating and saline soils.

Long day plant.

White mustard

White mustard, in comparison with gray mustard, is more cold-resistant.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-2 °C.

Seedlings are able to withstand prolonged frosts down to -6 ° C.

More demanding on moisture and less drought-resistant than gray mustard.

It is adapted to infertile medium acid podzolic soils due to the high absorbing capacity of the root system. Not strongly cohesive loams are considered optimal.

Long day plant.

Vegetation

The vegetation period of mustard blue is 90-100 (110) days. Flowering time is 10-25 days.

Vegetation period of white mustard (65) 80-90 (100) days.

As you move north, the growing season shortens.

For mustard, it is customary to distinguish the following development phases:

  • seedlings;
  • socket formation;
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • fruit formation;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of mustard in crop rotation are winter, leguminous and tilled crops, as well as the rotation of the layer of perennial grasses.

It is not placed after oilseeds from the cabbage family, for example, after rapeseed, camelina, because of common pests, primarily earthen fleas, as well as flax.

In field crop rotations, mustard can serve as a good precursor for spring cereals (oats, barley, wheat) and corn.

It is also suitable as a cover crop for alfalfa.

In conditions of little snowy steppes, mustard is sown in a small amount for winter crops. By the time frost sets in, it manages to form tall stems that hold snow well.

In the conditions of Western Siberia it is often used as a rock plant in fallow fields.

Fertilizer system

For the formation of 100 kg of seed yield, gray mustard consumes almost twice as many nutrients as winter wheat: nitrogen – 7.2 kg, phosphorus – 2.8 kg, potassium – 5.4 kg. For this reason, it responds well to fertilization.

The generalized application rates for mineral fertilizers for blue mustard are: nitrogen – 30-35 (40) kg/ha, phosphorus – 45-60 kg/ha, potassium – (40) 45-60 kg/ha. In the case of organic fertilizers, the application rate is 15-20 t/ha of manure, which is applied under the previous crop. Direct application of manure for mustard can reduce its yield and oil content of seeds.

The use of fertilizers for mustard can increase the yield by 80-100% and the oil content of the seeds. The combined use of mineral and organic fertilizers can increase yields by 30%. Mustard is particularly responsive to phosphorus fertilization.

Since the roots of white mustard have a high absorbing ability, it is advisable to add phosphorite flour under it, instead of 1/3 of the dose of superphosphate.

According to the data of the Don Experimental Station of All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds, the introduction of granular superphosphate in the amount of phosphorus 15-20 kg/ha into rows during sowing is effective. At the same time, the yield of mustard seeds increases by 0.24 t/ha.

On acidic soils, liming is effective.

Responds well to copper fertilization.

Tillage system

Tillage for mustard is similar to the tillage system for early grain crops (stubble peeling, plowing, snow retention, spring harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation).

The use of snow retention is effective, especially in the southern and southeastern regions of Russia, to increase the reserves of productive moisture in the soil. For this, snow-ploughs-swathers СВУ-2.6-1 are used.

Pre-sowing soil preparation is recommended to be carried out according to the type of improved plough. By spring field work, they begin immediately when the soil dries up. First, the soil surface is leveled with tine harrows, then pre-sowing cultivation is performed to a depth of 5-7 cm with simultaneous harrowing and smoothing.

When early weeds appear (after 10-15 days), in order to destroy them, it is advisable to perform a second cultivation.

Sowing

For sowing, high quality sorted seeds are used.

Mustard seeds must have a purity of at least 97%, germination rate of at least 90%.

White mustard seeds must be at least 97% pure and have a germination rate of at least 85%.

1-3 months before sowing, the seeds are treated with 90% technical gamma isomer of hexachlorane in the amount of 3 kg/t.

Sowing is carried out at an early date, simultaneously with early grain crops. Early sowing dates are especially effective in the steppe zone, as they allow the most complete use of moisture reserves.

It is permissible to sow white mustard at a later date, due to the short growing season, it is able to produce seeds even when sown before July, but the yield is lower.

The most common is the usual ordinary method of sowing (15 cm). In weedy fields and in extremely arid regions, a wide-row sowing method with row spacing of 45-70 cm is more effective. According to the experimental data of the Kamyshin State Breeding Station, with a wide-row sowing method, the yield of mustard seeds increases by 0.2-0.3 t/ha and the soil is well cleaned from weeds.

The seeding rate for blue mustard with the usual row sowing method is 9-12 kg/ha, white mustard – 15-18 kg/ha. For the wide-row method – 6-8 kg/ha and 10-12 kg/ha, respectively.

For the Volga region, the most optimal seeding rates are 10-12 kg/ha for row sowing, and 6-8 kg/ha for wide-row sowing.

Sowing depth (2) 3-4 (5) cm. For white mustard, the sowing depth can increase up to 6 cm depending on soil moisture.

Crop care

Care for mustard crops consists in rolling the soil after sowing. This is especially important in the southern regions.

After germination, harrowing is carried out with light or rotary harrows.

In wide-row crops, 2-3 inter-row treatments are performed.

Plant protection

The most dangerous pests of white mustard are earthen fleas, which can significantly reduce the yield, especially at late sowing dates.

To prevent the appearance of cruciferous flea in the seedling phase, the edges of fields 20-25 m wide, and in the case of pests, the entire field, are pollinated with 12% hexachloran dust at a consumption rate of 15-25 kg/ha.

Harvest

The ripening period of mustard seeds is extended, so the delay in harvesting leads to crop losses.

Harvesting blue mustard is usually carried out in a two-phase method, but single-phase is also allowed.

Harvesting is started in the phase of wax ripeness, when most of the pods on the plants turn yellow, while the seeds in the pods acquire a color characteristic of the variety. Harvesting should begin before the bottom pods begin to crack.

Drying of the mowed mass is also not allowed, as this leads to large losses during threshing.

The threshing of the rolls is carried out by grain combines, for example, “Niva”, equipped with a ПКК-5 device to reduce crop losses and crush seeds.

It is advisable to harvest white mustard, the pods of which almost do not crack, when the seeds are fully ripe.

The seeds are stored for storage with a moisture content of not more than 10%.

Mustard straw after harvesting in crushed plowed into the soil and serves as an organic fertilizer.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Safflower

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is an annual, herbaceous, one of the most drought-resistant oilseeds.

 

Economic importance

Safflower refers to an oilseed plant that is cultivated in arid areas with unsuitable conditions for growing sunflowers.

Safflower seeds contain 25-32%, or 50-56% in the kernels, of light yellow semi-drying oil, which is not inferior in taste to sunflower oil. Safflower oil is used for food purposes, for the manufacture of margarine or for technical purposes.

Safflower cake is bitter in taste, but in small quantities it can be used for feeding farm animals. 100 kg of cake correspond to 55 feed units. It is often used as fertilizer or fuel.

Safflower seeds serve as a good bird feed.

Crop history

Safflower has long been cultivated in India, Egypt, Afghanistan, Transcaucasia, Central Asia as an oilseed and dye plant.

Currently, safflower is grown only for oil production.

Chemical composition

The petals of the corolla contain the dye cartamin.

Cultivation areas and yield

The sown area of ​​safflower in the USSR in 1986 was 6 thousand hectares. Its crops were located on rainfed lands in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

In Russia, the main sown areas are located in the Lower Volga region.

The average yield of safflower seeds is 1.0-1.2 t/ha.

Botanical description

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family.

Root

The root is taproot, highly branched, penetrates up to 2 m deep into the soil.

Stem

Stem erect, branching, glabrous.

Plant height up to 90-100 cm.

Leaves

Leaves sessile, lanceolate, lanceolate-oval or elliptical, edges with small teeth, which often end in spines. At the top of the plant, the leaves decrease in size.

Inflorescence

The inflorescence is a basket with a diameter of 1.5-3.5 cm.

On one plant 5-50 baskets are formed.

The flowers are tubular. Corolla five-parted, yellow or orange.

Cross-pollinating plant.

Fruit

The fruit is an achene similar to a sunflower achene, with a hard, hard-to-split shell. The shell accounts for 40-50% of the mass of seeds.

When ripe, the seeds do not crumble.

The weight of 1000 seeds is from 20 to 50 g.

Biological features

Safflower is a heat-loving and very drought-resistant short-day plant. Well adapted to dry continental climates.

Safflower makes the greatest demands on heat during the flowering and ripening phases.

Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -5…-6 °С.

In wet and cloudy weather, the flowers are poorly fertilized, and the baskets can rot.

It is undemanding to the soil. Safflower is also adapted to saline soils. However, on fertile soils, its yield increases significantly.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter wheat and corn can be precursors to safflower.

Safflower itself can serve as a good precursor for spring crops.

Fertilizer system

Safflower responds well to the application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers with a consumption rate of N 30 kg/ha, P 60 kg/ha.

Fertilizer efficiency increases in wet years.

Tillage system

The tillage system for safflower is similar to that for sunflower.

On weedy fields, deep plowing of fallow land, combined with layered peeling, gives good results.

Sowing

For sowing, seeds with a purity of at least 95% and a germination capacity of at least 85% are used.

Sowing begins at the earliest possible time, at the same time as the sowing of spring wheat.

The most common sowing method is wide-row, with a row spacing of 45 cm.

The seeding rate is 10-12 kg/ha.

The seeding depth is from 5 to 8 cm and depends on soil moisture.

Crop care

Caring for safflower crops consists in harrowing along seedlings across the rows.

Also carry out 3-4 inter-row tillage.

Harvest

The method of harvesting safflower is single-phase.

Harvesting begins in the phase of full ripeness of the seeds.

For harvesting use converted grain harvesters.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Sunflower

Sunflower (Helianthus spp.) is the main oilseed crop in Russia.

 
Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Source: commons.wikimedia.org
©H. Zell (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Economic importance

The oil content in modern zoned sunflower varieties is 50-52 (56)% of fats from the mass of dry matter of seeds.

Sunflower oil refers to semi-drying and has a high taste. It is used directly for food purposes, and is also used to obtain margarine, in canning, baking, confectionery and other areas of the food industry.

The main fatty acids in sunflower oil are linoleic and oleic acids. The content of linoleic acid in the oil of modern sunflower varieties is 55-60% of the total fatty acids, oleic – 30-35%. Varieties with different ratios of these acids have been bred. For example, the content of oleic acid in the oil of the Pervenets variety, bred by the All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds, is 75-80%, linoleic acid is 12-17%. By its quality sunflower oil of this variety is not inferior to olive oil.

The composition of sunflower oil also includes phosphatides, vitamins A, D, E, K and other substances useful for humans.

Sunflower oil of lower grades is used for the manufacture of soap, varnishes and paints, stearin, linoleum, films, waterproof fabrics, electrical fittings, etc.

Waste of seed processing for oil – cake, formed during the pressing method of obtaining oil, and meal (or cake flour), during the extraction method, are valuable feed for farm animals with a high protein content, which contains a large amount of essential amino acids. Waste accounts for 33-35% of the mass of seeds.

1 kg of meal corresponds to 1.02 feed units and contains 363 g of digestible protein. 1 kg of cake is 1.09 feed units and contains 226 g of digestible protein. The content of fat in the waste ranges from 1 to 7%, protein from 33 to 35% (Kolomeichenko). According to other sources, the cake contains 8-10% fat, 36-40% protein, 20% carbohydrates. Meal contains 1-3% fat (Niklyaev). In terms of the content of phosphorus and calcium, cake and meal are superior to grain plants.

Threshed sunflower heads are also used as animal feed. The output of dry baskets reaches 56-60% of the mass of seeds. 1 kg of flour from dried baskets corresponds to 0.8 feed units and contains 38-43 g of protein.

Husk of sunflower seeds is a valuable raw material for the production of hexose and pentose sugar. Hexose sugar is used to produce ethyl alcohol and fodder yeast. Pentose goes to the production of furfural, which is used in the production of plastics, artificial fibers, safety glass and other chemical materials. The yield of husks of modern varieties of sunflower reaches 18-20% of the mass of seeds.

The green mass of sunflower, cut to the stage of budding, is used as feed for cattle. Forage qualities of green mass are average. 100 kg of green mass cut at the beginning of flowering corresponds to 12 feed units, contains 1 kg of digestible protein and 3.5 g of carotene.

Tall (special) varieties of sunflower, mowed in the budding-flowering phase, in pure form or in a mixture with other forage grasses (peas, vetch, fodder beans, oats, etc.), are used for preparing silage. Sunflower silage is not inferior in nutritional value to corn stalks and leaves silage. Usually, sunflower is used to obtain silage in regions where soil and climatic conditions do not allow the use of corn for the same purposes. As a silage culture, it is used mainly in the Non-Chernozem zone and Western Siberia.

The chemical composition of sunflower silage includes:

  • water – 73.4-83.5%;
  • protein – 1.8-3.1%;
  • fats – 0.6-1.9%;
  • fiber – 4.4-8.8%;
  • nitrogen-free extractives – 5.8-11.1%;
  • ash – 2.3-3.3%, including 0.7% calcium.

The ash of sunflower stems contains about 4% P2O5 and up to 36% K2O. Therefore, it can serve as a fertilizer and for the production of potash (potassium carbonate).

Yellow basket petals are used in pharmacology.

A good honey plant, as it is the basis of the feed conveyor for bees for a long period.

Crushed plant residues after harvesting seeds can serve as a good organic fertilizer.

Crop history

The dry prairies of the southwest (or south) of North America are considered to be the birthplace of sunflower, where wild representatives of the genus Helianthus are widespread , to which the modern cultivated sunflower belongs (Vavilov, Kolomeichenko). According to other sources, the homeland is North and South America from California to Bolivia (Niklyaev).

It was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in 1510 as an ornamental plant.

Sunflower was brought to Russia from Holland in the 18th century. as an ornamental plant and for edible seeds, which were consumed as a delicacy instead of nuts.

For the first time, the possibility of obtaining oil from seeds dates back to 1769. The idea of ​​the practical cultivation of sunflower as an agricultural crop and the use of its seeds to produce oil belongs to the serf peasant of the Alekseevka settlement, Biryuchensky district, Voronezh province (Belgorod region) D.S. Bokarev. As early as 1829 (Vavilov, Niklyaev; according to other sources, in 1835, Kolomeychenko), he was the first in the world to obtain oil from sunflower seeds grown in his garden using a manual squeezing press. In 1833, the first horse-driven oil churn was built in the same settlement, and in 1865, the first oil mill was built.

Later, sunflower crops spread to the Voronezh and Saratov provinces, Ukraine, the North Caucasus and Siberia.

In 1860, work on the selection of oilseed varieties began in the Russian Empire. An important role in breeding work on cultivated sunflower (Helianthus cultus Wenzl) was played by outstanding domestic breeders Plachek E.M., Zhdanov L.A. (Hero of Socialist Labor, Academician of VASKhNIL), Pustovoit BC (twice Hero of Socialist Labor, Academician), Shcherbina V.I., Prokhorov K.I. and others. It is in Russia that there is the largest biodiversity of forms, varieties and hybrids of cultivated sunflower. Local varieties that were cultivated in pre-revolutionary times had low oil content (28-30%) and high husk content (43-44%). Modern varieties contain up to 45-50% oil, and their huskiness does not exceed 22-25%.

During the period of the Soviet Union, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Oilseeds named after V.S. Pustovoit (VNIIMK), as well as experimental stations of this institute: Don (Ukrainian SSR), Armavir and Belgorod.

In the second half of the 20th century, interest in this crop as an oilseed plant increased markedly. The area under sunflower crops in the world in 1984 was 13.4 million hectares. By country, in 1984, the areas occupied by crops were:

  • USSR – 4.5 million hectares;
  • USA – 1.5 million hectares;
  • Argentina – 1.9 million hectares;
  • Hungary – 0.3 million hectares;
  • India – 0.67 million hectares;
  • Bulgaria – 0.3 million hectares.

In the USSR, sunflower as an oilseed crop was grown in the RSFSR – 2.5 million hectares (55%), in Ukraine – 1.7 million hectares (38%), Moldova – 170 thousand hectares (4%), Kazakhstan – 100 thousand hectares (2%), Georgia – 15 thousand hectares. By 1990, it was planned to increase the gross harvest of sunflower to 7.4-7.5 million tons.

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of the green mass, mowed in the phase of mass flowering:

  • water – 65-70%;
  • carbohydrates – 17%;
  • protein – 2.5%;
  • fats – 0.8%.

Also in the green mass contains a large amount of calcium and phosphorus.

Cultivation areas and yield

By the end of the XX century. the world’s sown area under sunflower was about 21 million hectares, or 12% of the total sown area occupied by oilseeds.

The gross seed harvest in the world was about 25 million tons, or 10% of the total oilseed harvest. The yield was 1.2 t/ha, or 0.3 t/ha less than the average for oilseeds.

In Russia, about 80% of all areas occupied by sunflower fall on the North Caucasus (Rostov region), the Central Black Earth zone, the Middle and Lower Volga regions. Significantly smaller areas are available in the Urals and Western Siberia. The territories of Eastern Siberia and Altai were gradually mastered.

For 2001-2005 the area occupied by sunflower crops in Russia amounted to 4.5 million hectares, or 83% of the total sown area of ​​oilseeds
. The gross harvest of oilseeds reached 4 million tons or 85% of the total production.

The average seed yield was (in 1984) 1.2-1.4 t/ha. The highest yields are traditionally obtained in the Kuban. Record yields, on average 2.7-2.9 t / ha, were obtained in Soviet times on many farms, for example, on the Kuban collective farm, the collective farm named after. Krupskaya, Ust-Labinsk district, the Pobeda collective farm, Dinskoy district, etc.). According to data from the early 2000s. the average yield is 0.94 t/ha, or about the same as the average for oilseeds (0.95 t/ha). The maximum yield of the best hybrids in variety plots and under excellent growing conditions reaches 2-3 t/ha. High yields of 2-2.5 t/ha were obtained in the Voronezh, Tambovka, Lipetsk and Belgorod regions; in the Rostov Region and the Krasnodar Territory – 2.7-3 t/ha.

The promotion of sunflower crops to the north and east of Russia, primarily to the south of the Non-Chernozem zone, to Eastern Siberia and the Far East, is facilitated by the breeding of more early-ripening hybrids and varieties, as well as the development of new methods of agricultural technology.

Botanical description

The sunflower belongs to the Asteraceae family .

The sunflower species Helianthus annus L. , established by Linnaeus , is currently considered to be a collection. It is divided into two separate types:

  • Helianthus cultus Wenzl. – cultivated sunflower, which is also divided into two subspecies:
    • ssp. sativus Wenzl. — cultivated sunflower;
    • ssp. ornamentalis Wenzl. – decorative sunflower;
  • Helianthus ruderalis Wenzl. – wild sunflower.

The cultivated sunflower is an annual plant.

Root

The root is taproot, penetrates the soil to a depth of 2-4 m and spreads to the sides by 100-120 cm.

Stem

The stem is erect, woody, has a loose core, unbranched.

Plant height is from 0.7 to 2.5 m, in silage varieties it reaches 3-4 m.

The height of plants of oil-bearing varieties and hybrids is from 1.5 to 2.5 m, gnawing – 2-4 m.

Leaves

The leaves are large, densely pubescent, oval-heart-shaped, with a pointed end and serrated edges, on long petioles.

The lower leaves (3-5 pairs) are located oppositely, the rest – alternately.

On one plant, early-ripening varieties form 15-25 leaves, late-ripening – 30-35. Cargo varieties and hybrids are more leafy.

Inflorescence

Inflorescence – apical basket in the form of a flat, convex or concave disc, which is surrounded by a wrapper of several rows of leaflets. The diameter of the basket in oil-bearing varieties (8) is 10-20 (25) cm, the diameter of the gnats is 30-40 (45) cm. The basket is based on a receptacle, on which reed flowers are located along the edges, and inside are tubular.

Reed flowers are sterile, large, orange-yellow, sometimes have an underdeveloped pistil. These flowers attract insects, which is of great importance for pollination. Tubular flowers are bisexual and occupy almost the entire receptacle. In one basket there are from 600 to 1200 tubular flowers.

Each flower has a pistil with a lower single-celled ovary and style, as well as a corolla with fused petals and five cloves. Corollas from light yellow to dark orange.

Flowers in the flowering phase open gradually from the periphery to the center of the basket.

Stamens five, filaments free, anthers fused.

Cross-pollinating plant. Usually, under natural conditions, some of the flowers remain unfertilized, which leads to empty grains. To reduce empty grain, beehives with bees are taken out for crops during the flowering period.

Fruit

The fruit is a compressed ovoid achene, with four indistinct faces. It consists of a seed – a core with a thin seed coat, and a leathery dense hard pericarp (peel or husk), not fused with the core.

The pericarp has an epidermis under which cork tissue is located, and deeper than it there are several layers of lignified sclerenchyma cells. The upper layers of sclerenchyma in armored varieties are formed by a black-coal, insoluble in water, acids and alkalis, substance (phytomelan), which protects seeds from sunflower moths.

The peel can be white, gray, black, and striped or stripless in texture. The husk content of achenes, that is, the mass of the husk in relation to the mass of the seed, varies from 22 to 46% (56%). The most valuable varieties include sunflower varieties with low huskiness.

Weight of 1000 seeds – 40-125 (170) g.

Seed

The seed (kernel) includes an embryo and a thin seed coat.

The embryo consists of a root, a kidney and two cotyledons. During germination, the cotyledons are brought to the surface of the soil.

Biological features

Sunflower belongs to the continental climate plant. The homeland of its wild forms are the dry prairies of North America, and the cultivated forms were formed in the steppe zone of the European part of Russia and the former USSR, where high temperatures and low air humidity in summer are characteristic. At the same time, sunflower is characterized by high ecological plasticity.

Temperature requirements

Germination of sunflower seeds begins at a temperature of 4-6 °C (according to other sources, 4-5 °C). Increasing the temperature accelerates the emergence of seedlings. At a temperature of 8-10°C shoots appear 15-20 days after sowing, at 15-16 °C – after 9-10 days, and at 20 °C – after 6-8 days. The optimum germination temperature is 12-15 °C.

The sum of active temperatures for the period from sowing to germination is 140-160 °C.

Sunflower seeds that have hatched can easily tolerate frosts down to -10 °C, and swollen ones – up to -13 ° C. Seedlings withstand short-term frosts down to -5…-8 °С.

After the emergence of seedlings, the requirements of plants for heat increase. In the flowering phase and in the subsequent period for sunflower, the optimum temperature is 25-27 °C (Vavilov; according to other sources, 20-25 °C, Niklyaev). Temperatures above 30 °C have a depressing effect.

In the flowering phase, sunflower plants are sensitive to low temperatures. Frosts -1…-2 °C during this period lead to severe damage and complete death of flowers.

Frost damage to the growing point leads to strong branching of plants, so for fodder purposes sunflower can be sown as early as possible.

It is very sensitive to autumn cold snaps and does not withstand even light frosts on the soil.

The sum of active temperatures required for the ripening of early ripening varieties is 1600-1800 °C, for mid-ripening and late varieties – 2000-3000 °C.

Moisture requirements

Sunflower makes quite high demands on moisture. Water consumption by one plant during the growing season exceeds 200 liters. Transpiration coefficient 470-570. For the formation of 100 kg of seeds, plants use 140-180 tons of water or 3000-6000 tons per ha.

Due to the root system penetrating into the soil to a depth of more than 3 m, sunflower is drought-resistant. Plants are able to use moisture from deep soil layers, which is not available to many other annual plants.

Due to the pubescence of stems and leaves, as well as the adaptability of stomata to constant transpiration, they increase the resistance of sunflower to drought and heat, especially before flowering.

According to the Research Institute of Agriculture of the South-East, sunflower uses moisture unevenly:

  • for the period from germination to the formation of the head, it consumes (22) 23% of the total moisture consumption during the growing season;
  • from the formation of a basket to the (end) of flowering – 60%, is a critical period for the need for moisture (Vavilov, Kolomeichenko; according to other sources, 40-50%, Nikitin);
  • from flowering to ripening – 17 (18)%.

The lack of moisture in the soil during the critical period is the reason for the “capture” of flowers and empty grains in the center of the baskets, a sharp decrease in yield.

At the beginning of the growing season, sunflower plants use the moisture of the upper layers of the soil, while after the formation of heads, water consumption occurs mainly from a depth of more than 50 cm.

In case of severe drought, by the time the flowering begins, a large number of established flowers, especially in the central part of the basket, do not bloom. At the same time, the mass of both the individual achenes and the total mass of seeds from one plant is significantly reduced, which leads to a decrease in sunflower yield. For this reason, when growing sunflower in arid regions, moisture accumulation is of great importance: retention of snow and melt water, irrigation and other methods that improve the water regime.

Soil requirements

In Russia, most of the sunflower crops are located on leached, powerful and ordinary southern chernozems, as well as on chestnut soils.

It prefers sandy and loamy chernozems, as well as chestnut, gray forest (sandy and loamy) and podzolized soils.

The optimal pH range for plant growth is 6.0-6.8 (7).

Sunflower does not tolerate heavy clay, (light) sandy, acidic, highly saline (alkaline), marshy soils. It is considered less demanding on soils than corn.

Light requirements

Sunflower belongs to light-loving plants.

Shading and cloudy weather lead to a delay in the growth and development of plants or their elongation, the leaves form small, which leads to a decrease in yield.

Sunflower is a short day plant. Under conditions of daylight hours, the growth and accumulation of green mass of plants increases, but flowering and maturation are delayed. Therefore, when moving north, its growing season increases, the productivity of green mass increases, but seed ripening is delayed, and their yield decreases.

Nutrient requirements

The nutrient requirement of sunflower is much greater than that of grain crops. For the formation of 100 kg of sunflower seeds, according to numerous experimental data, on average, it consumes 5-6 kg of nitrogen, 2-2.5 kg of phosphorus and 10-12 (16) kg of potassium. The ratio of N : P2O5 : K2O is 3 : 1 : 5. The amount of nutrients consumed depends on the growing conditions and crop level.

The supply of nutrients to plants during the growing season is uneven. The greatest consumption of nitrogen falls on the period from the beginning of the formation of the basket to the end of flowering, phosphorus – from the emergence of seedlings to flowering, potassium – from the formation of the basket to maturation.

The initial period of plant development is critical in the consumption of phosphorus.

During the ripening of sunflower seeds, the bulk of the consumed nitrogen and phosphorus accumulates, while potassium – only about 10%, the remaining 90% accumulates in the vegetative organs.

By the time of flowering, sunflower plants use up to 60% of nitrogen, up to 80% of phosphorus and up to 90% of potassium from the total removal from the soil for the entire growing season.

Crop rotation

Vegetation of sunflower plants according to morphological characteristics is divided into the following main phases (Vavilov):

  • seedlings;
  • the beginning of the formation of the basket;
  • bloom;
  • maturation.

All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds recommends distinguishing the following developmental phases according to morphological features:

  • seedlings;
  • leaf formation, that is, from the emergence of seedlings to the formation of 4-5 pairs of true leaves;
  • differentiation, or from 4-5 pairs to 9-10 pairs of leaves;
  • active growth, or from 9-10 pairs of leaves before flowering;
  • bloom;
  • formation and filling of seeds;
  • maturation.

Another option for grouping sunflower growing seasons (Kolomeichenko):

  • seed germination;
  • emergence of seedlings;
  • the first and second pairs of leaves;
  • third and fourth pairs of leaves;
  • budding;
  • bloom;
  • growth and filling of seeds;
  • maturation;
  • full ripeness.

Table. Phases of growth and development, stages of organogenesis and the formation of sunflower productivity elements (Department of Crop Production of the Don Agro University (Alabushev et al., 2001)[1]V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. - M .: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. - 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6

PHASE
STAGES OF ORGANOGENESIS AND LEADING PROCESSES
FORMATION OF ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTIVITY
SeedlingsI - the growth cone is undifferentiated, poorly visible, has a flat shapeNumber of plants per area
1st leaf pair
2nd leaf pair
3rd leaf pair
II - the growth cone increases, the rudiments of the stem and leaves
are formed
III - the formation of the receptacle, the growth of the lower leaves
IV - the laying of flower tubercles
Plant habitus (height, branching)
Inflorescence formationV - formation of the integumentary and generative organs of the flower
VI - pollen is formed in the anthers, in the ovary - the embryo sac
VII - the growth of flowers, filaments
Number of flowers in an inflorescence
BloomVIII - corolla development, basket wrapper unfolds, anther comes out of the corolla
IX - flowering and fertilization
Number of seeds in a basket (head)
Formation of achenesX - achene formation (growth in length)Achenes size
Pouring achenesXI - deposition of spare substances, oil accumulationAchenes weight
Achene maturationXII - transfer of nutrients to spare, increase in oil contentAchenes weight

Table. Phases of sunflower growth and development (code ВВСН) (Western Europe, Shpaar D.)[2]V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

MICROPHASES
0. Germination00 Dry seed.
01 Start swelling it.
03 End swelling it.
05 Emergence of the germinal root from the seed.
06 The germinal root is elongated, the formation of root hairs.
07 Hypocotyl and cotyledons have pierced the seed coat.
08 The hypocotyl breaks through the soil surface.
09 Seedlings (cotyledons come to the surface of the soil).
1. Leaf development, main shoot (with clearly visible growth in length (stretched internodes), you should go to macrophase codes)10 Cotyledons are completely dissolved.
12 Two real leaves (1 pair) are unraveled.
14 Four real leaves (2 pairs).
15 Five true leaves.
16 Six true leaves.
17 Seven true leaves.
18 Eight true leaves.
19 Nine true leaves.
2.-
3. Growth in length30 Beginning of growth in length.
31 The first stretched internode is visible.
32 The second stretched internode is visible.
33 The third stretched internode is visible.
3... Microphases continuing until...
39 Nine or more stretched internodes are visible.
4.-
5. Flower formation51 Inflorescence bud visible between young leaves (star microphase).
53 Inflorescence separates from upper leaves, bracts clearly distinguishable from true leaves.
55 Inflorescence detached from upper true leaf.
57 Inflorescence clearly separated from upper true leaves.
59 The inflorescence is still closed. Reed flowers are visible between the bracts.
6. Flowering (main shoot)61 Beginning of flowering. Reed flowers are located vertically on the basket, tubular flowers are visible in the outer third of it.
63 Tubular flowers in the outer part of the basket bloom, stamens and stigmas are free.
65 Full bloom. Tubular flowers in the middle part of the basket bloom, stamens and stigmas are free.
67 Completion of flowering. Tubular flowers in the inner part of the basket bloom, stamens and stigmas are free.
69 End of flowering. All tubular flowers have faded. In the outer and middle parts of the basket, bookmarks of fruits are visible. Reed flowers dried out or fell off.
7. Fruit development71 Seeds on the edge of the basket are gray, species or variety size
73 Seeds in the outer part of the basket are gray, species or variety size
75 Seeds in the middle part of the basket are gray, species or variety size
79 Seeds in the inner part of the basket have a gray color, species - or varietal size
8. Ripening of fruits and seeds80 Beginning of maturation. The seeds on the edge of the basket are black, the seed coat is hard, its back side is still green.
81 Seeds in the outer part of the basket are black and hard, its back side is still green.
83 "Lemon" ripeness (yellowish-green back side of the basket). Bracts are still green. Seed moisture is about 50%.
85 Continued seed maturation. They are black in the middle of the basket. The edges of the bracts are brown. The back of the basket is yellow. Seed moisture is about 40%.
87 Physiological ripeness. The back of the basket is yellow. Bracts on 75% of the leaf surface are brown. Seed moisture is about 15%.
89 Full ripeness. The seeds in the inner part of the basket are black, the bracts are brown. The back side of the basket is brown. Seed moisture is about 15%.
9. Dying away92 End of full ripeness (overripeness). Seed moisture about 10%
97 Plant died
99 Harvest products (seeds)

The duration of interphase periods for the most common group of mid-ripening varieties is (Vavilov):

  • from sowing to germination 14-16 days;
  • from germination to the beginning of the formation of the basket 37-43 days;
  • from the beginning of the formation of the basket to flowering 27-30 days (according to other sources, 50-60 days after germination, Kolomeichenko);
  • from flowering to ripening 44-50 days.

The total duration of vegetation for this group of sunflower varieties is 120-140 days. Depending on the variety or hybrid and growing conditions, seeds may ripen in (70) 80-120 (140) days after germination.

In the first period of its development (2-3 pairs of leaves), sunflower plants develop relatively slowly. At this time, they are easily drowned out by weeds. However, then the growth accelerates and reaches its maximum, which is 3-5 cm per day, in the period from the formation of the basket to the beginning of flowering. In the flowering phase, growth in height slows down and stops completely by the end of flowering.

The beginning of the formation of the basket in early maturing varieties of sunflower in the conditions of the South-East of Russia falls on 2 pairs of leaves, in mid-season – at 3-5 pairs. The laying of the basket in mid-season varieties begins in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory with 5 pairs of leaves.

Flowering of one basket lasts 8-10 days, and growth – until it turns yellow. The basket grows most intensively within 8-10 days after the end of flowering. The filling of achenes lasts for 32-42 days from the time of their fertilization.

Simultaneously with the growth of the plant in height and the formation of a basket, dry matter begins to accumulate. During this period, this process is slow, and by the beginning of the formation of the basket, sunflower accumulates only 15% of dry matter. By the beginning of the flowering phase, the amount of dry matter in the plant reaches 50%, and it continues to increase until the beginning of the filling of seeds, but is also spent mainly on the formation of the basket.

Physiological ripening of achenes after harvesting can be 10-50 days.

Crop rotation

In the main sunflower growing areas, winter crops are the most common forerunners, especially those in bare or seeded fallow. With this variant of crop rotation, good conditions for the nutrient and water regime for sunflower plants are created. Good forerunners of sunflowers include corn, leguminous, as well as spring cereals (wheat, barley) and flax.

In the Urals and Siberia, the best predecessors of sunflower are spring cereals.

Due to the deep-penetrating root system, sunflower plants are able to effectively use moisture from soil layers of 100-200 cm and even 200-300 cm, especially in the second half of the growing season. Sunflower productivity often depends on the presence of moisture in these layers. Therefore, in crop rotations, it is not placed after crops with a powerful root system that dries up the lower horizons, such as alfalfa, sugar beet, Sudanese grass. In areas with insufficient moisture, in which these crops are present in crop rotations, sunflower should be placed only 3-4 years after one of them, and the return of sunflower to its original place is allowed no earlier than after 8-10 years. Its earlier return leads to the spread of broomrape, diseases and pests. From these conditions it is obvious that the crop rotation, which includes sunflower, sugar beets and perennial grasses, should be at least 10-12 fields and have a long rotation.

Peas, soybeans, beans and rape, which have common diseases with sunflower (sclerotinia, gray rot, etc.), are also not recommended sunflower predecessors in crop rotations .

Sunflower is strongly affected by downy mildew and broomrape (Orobanche), so its return to its original place in the crop rotation is allowed no earlier than after 8-10 years.

Sunflower silage varieties and hybrids include crops that leave weed-free fields, as well as loose and nutrient-rich soils, for example, winter and spring crops that go through a layer of perennial grasses, potatoes, fodder root crops. It is also possible to grow it as a hay crop – after winter crops for green fodder or annual grasses. A second return in this case is possible in 5-7 years.

The sunflower itself serves as a good precursor for spring wheat, oats, barley, and other spring crops. However, they are often clogged with sunflower carrion. In the south of the Kuban – for winter crops.

An important feature of sunflower, as a predecessor in crop rotations, is carrion, that is, sunflower seeds that crumble in autumn during harvesting. After overwintering, these seeds sprout and clog the crops of subsequent crops. Failure to comply with the optimal harvesting time and large losses of sunflower seeds leads to an increase in carrion. The most harmful is carrion in the subsequent sowings of spring grain crops after sunflower. To combat carrion, deep autumn plowing is advisable.

Sunflower is one of the main crops used in rock crops, which are used in the steppe regions for the purpose of accumulating snow and protecting against wind erosion.

Fertilizer system

The sunflower fertilization system includes the main fertilizer during autumn tillage, as well as row fertilizer during sowing.

Organic and mineral fertilizers are used as the main fertilizer. According to All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds many years of experience, applying manure in the amount of 15-20 t/ha in autumn is effective for all major sunflower growing areas. The increase in seed yield reaches 220-500 kg/ha. Sunflower is also responsive to manure aftereffect. When manure is applied under the previous crop, the seed yield increases by 200-300 kg/ha. For chernozem soils, the application of manure in the amount of 20-40 t/ha gives an increase in sunflower seeds by 0.2-0.5 t/ha.

Spreaders are used to spread manure, for example, РУН-15Б.

According to the generalized data of experimental institutions, sunflower responds differently to the application of mineral fertilizers during autumn plowing (NPK at 45-60 kg/ha) in different zones (table).

Table. Responsiveness of sunflower to mineral fertilizers in different zones of its cultivation[3]Crop production/P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and teaching aids … Continue reading

ZONE
CHERNOZEM DIFFERENCE
SEED YIELD WITHOUT FERTILIZERS, T/HA
INCREASE IN SEED YIELD, T/HA
P
NP
NPK
North CaucasusLeached
2,27
+0,21
+0,39
+0,21
Central Black EarthOrdinary
1,38
+0,10
+0,23
+0,26
UkraineSouthern
1,41
+0,16
+0,28
+0,21

The greatest increase in yield (0.23-0.39 t/ha) is provided by the introduction of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer. The effect of using one phosphate fertilizer is less and amounts to 0.10-0.21 t/ha. The introduction of potash fertilizers is impractical, even in combination with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, since this not only does not lead to an increase, but sometimes even reduces the yield.

Application rates and efficiency of fertilizers are determined by zonal features. For example, in the steppe regions of Ukraine, N30-60P60-90 are optimal. For the forest-steppe zone – N45-60, P45-60, K45-60 (Vavilov). According to other data (Kolomeichenko), for the steppe and forest-steppe zones on chernozem and dark chestnut soils, it is recommended to apply N40P60 (since these soils are sufficiently supplied with potassium). On sandy soils with a low potassium content, K40-60 is applied . Also (Niklyaev), general recommendations – N30-60P45-90K45-60.

The application rates of mineral fertilizers are adjusted taking into account the planned harvest and agrochemical analysis data.

Potash fertilizers for sunflower are usually applied on soils poor in potassium.

The yield of sunflower increases with the joint application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

Spreaders are used for fertilizing, for example, 1-РМГ-4 or ЮМЗ-6АЛ.

Sowing fertilizer of sunflower, especially with phosphate fertilizers, gives an increase in yield and increases the oil content of seeds. When sowing, fertilizer is applied at a distance of 6-10 cm from the row to a depth of 10-12 cm at a dose of N10P10-15 with two or one tape. For this, re-equipped fertilizer seeders of the СПЧ-8M or СПЧ-6МФ seeders can be used.

Top dressing of sunflower during the growing season is usually considered ineffective (Kolomeichenko). According to other sources, sunflower responds very well to top dressing (Niklyaev). For these purposes, use up to 1/3-1/4 of all fertilizers. Sometimes top dressing is carried out in two steps: at the first stage, fertilizers are planted with cultivators-plant feeders to a depth of 7-8 cm, at the second – by 10-12 cm. If possible, it is better to use liquid complex fertilizers N20P30.

Tillage system

Basic processing

The main tillage for sunflower differs for different natural zones. Depending on the conditions, one of the autumn soil preparation techniques can be used: ordinary autumn, semi-fallow and improved autumn. In all cases, before plowing, the stubble is peeled with disc tools to a depth of 6-8 cm (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, 5-7 or 8-12 cm, Niklyaev).

The usual autumn tillage consists of stubble stubble plowing followed by autumn plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm for light and weed-free soils, or 25-30 cm for heavy and weed-infested soils. It is used in northern and eastern sunflower growing areas, such as Siberia , Kazakhstan, north of the Central Black Earth zone and the Volga region.

Semi-fallow tillage differs from the usual autumn tillage in that after early plowing, the soil is treated like a black fallow. It is used in areas with a long, at least one month, warm autumn period after harvesting the previous crop.

Improved autumn tillage consists in stubble peeling, after which 2-3 layered surface treatments are carried out, and in September-October the main plowing is performed. This technique is widely used in many areas of sunflower cultivation, such as the North Caucasus, Ukraine, Moldova. Layer-by-layer processing of the improved plowing allows to reduce weed infestation by 70-80% and improves the quality of subsequent plowing.

With a strong clogging of perennial root weeds, for example, thistle, sow thistle, bindweed, layer-by-layer tillage is used. To do this, the stubble is peeled to a depth of 6-8 cm with disc tools, then after the growth of root weeds, the soil is cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm with share cultivators, heavy disc harrows or flat cutters. Further, after re-growth, deep autumn plowing is carried out to a depth of up to 30-32 cm.

In areas of sufficient moisture in the Krasnodar Territory and other areas with similar conditions, double layered plowing is used. To do this, after peeling the stubble, shallow plowing is carried out to a depth of 14-18 cm, then 2-3 surface treatments and in October – repeated deep plowing to 27-30 cm. Such tillage, including deep plowing, is effective in combating root shoot weeds.

On cultivated chernozems, in the absence of perennial weeds, deep plowing (to a depth of 27–30 or 30–32 cm) for sunflower does not provide advantages over conventional plowing (20–22 cm).

In areas prone to wind erosion, to protect soil from demolition, non-moldboard (flat-cut) tillage is used, which allows you to save most of the crop residues on the soil surface. To do this, two small treatments are carried out and then autumn deep loosening up to 20-25 cm.

Positive results are obtained by carrying out snow retention. According to the data of the Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of the South-East, thanks to the implementation of snow retention techniques in the fields, the increase in the yield of sunflower seeds reaches 0.6 t/ha. In the spring, snow can be compacted, and slotting can be used to retain melt water.

Pre-sowing treatment

Pre-sowing tillage is determined by the quality of autumn plowing and the condition of the field in spring.

In the presence of wintering weeds and on floating soils, as well as winter carrion, spring tillage for sunflower includes early harrowing with heavy and medium harrows and 1-2 cultivations with simultaneous harrowing and plowing.

In the case of industrial cultivation technology, careful leveling of the field surface is necessary, as this affects the quality of herbicide application and sowing.

According to All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds, carrying out two cultivations of fallow in fields infested with annual weeds and, to a small extent, perennials, with an average sowing period, does not have a significant advantage compared to one cultivation. The greatest efficiency with one pre-sowing cultivation is achieved when the soil warms up from 8 to 12 °C and the mass emergence of seedlings and seedlings of weeds.

In the case of autumn flat-cutting cultivation with stubble left on the soil surface, needle harrows and then cultivators are used for pre-sowing soil preparation.

Pre-sowing treatment is carried out to the depth of sowing seeds, that is, 6-8 cm when using seeds of a standard size or 5-6 cm for small ones.

Soil cultivation for sunflower silage varieties and hybrids is no different.

Sowing

Seed preparation

For sowing, sunflower seeds of zoned and promising varieties and hybrids are used.

According to varietal qualities, that is, typicality and armor, sunflower seeds are divided into three categories:

  • Category I – seeds with a typicality of at least 99.8%, a shell of at least 98%;
  • Category II – seeds with a typicality of at least 98%, a shell of at least 96%;
  • Category III – seeds with a typicality of at least 97%, a shell of at least 95%.

According to sowing qualities, sunflower seeds are divided into three classes:

  • Grade 1 – seed purity of at least 99%, germination rate of at least 95%;
  • Grade 2 – seed purity not less than 98%, germination rate not less than 97%;
  • Grade 3 – seed purity of at least 93%, germination rate of at least 90%.

Seeds must be well executed.

For sowing, the use of calibrated (leveled) seeds is of great importance. Calibrated seeds make it possible to obtain plants that are more uniform in height and strength, thereby increasing their productivity and reducing crop losses during harvesting. Sowing completed and large seeds allows you to increase the yield of sunflower by 0.15-0.3 t/ha. Seed sizing is more important with staggered seeding to avoid further thinning.

Before sowing, seeds are treated with 65% fentiuram at the rate of 3 kg/t of seeds to protect them from diseases. To prevent infection with downy mildew, apron (6 kg/t) is treated.

A highly active insecticide, a technical gamma isomer of hexachlorane with a consumption rate of 2-4 kg/t of seeds, can be attributed to insecticides for sunflower seeds. The treated seeds are coated with a film-forming composition, that is, they are encrusted. Seeds treated in this way are protected from damage by soil pests, and it is possible to provide a given plant density.

For dressing seeds allowed (2007) preparations:

  • TMTD, in the forms of sp. (800 g/kg), v.s.k., t.p.s., – to combat white and gray rot, seed mold and downy mildew;
  • Aktamyr, etc. – to combat white and gray rot, seed mold and downy mildew;
  • Maxim, Ph.D. – to combat fomopsis, downy mildew, gray, white, dry and fusarium rot;
  • Semaphore, etc. – to fight the wireworm.

With a high number of wireworms, additional insecticides are added to the soil.

Sowing dates

For the main areas of cultivation, sunflower sowing dates fall in early and mid-spring (respectively, early and medium sowing dates). There are almost no differences between these terms. Very early and late sowing dates are impractical.

On weedy soils, medium terms are more preferable, that is, when the soil warms up to 8-12 °C at the seeding depth. By this time, seedlings and seedlings of early weeds appear on the soil surface, which are destroyed during pre-sowing cultivation.

Early sowing dates fall on soil warming up to 5-7 °C. At the same time, the physical ripeness of the soil may not yet occur, and shoots of early weeds are often absent.

Seeds of high oil varieties are characterized by higher heat requirements, so they should be sown when the soil warms up to 8-10 °C at a seeding depth (8-10 cm). Early sowing of such varieties and hybrids leads to a long germination time and partial loss of germination, which causes thinning of seedlings.

Sowing late, that is, when the soil warms up to 14-16 °C or more, leads to a decrease in sunflower yields in all areas of cultivation.

In the arid regions of the South-East of Russia, where a lack of moisture reserves in the soil is characteristic, early sowing dates are optimal, which give the best results.

In the forest-steppe part of the Central Black Earth zone, sunflower is also recommended to be sown early. Delaying the timing of sowing in these areas, for example, for the emergence of seedlings of early weeds, followed by their destruction by pre-sowing cultivation, leads to a delay in the ripening of sunflower seeds.

In the conditions of the Southern Urals and Western Siberia, sunflower sowing is carried out in the middle terms, which contributes to a sharp increase in its yield, while early sowing can lead to damage to sunflower seedlings from spring frosts and oppression by weeds.

It should be borne in mind that sunflower seeds with a thick, lignified shell swell very slowly, so they are sown at an earlier date.

Sowing is carried out in a short time – in 2-3 days.

When using sunflower for fodder purposes, it can be sown at different times, for example, in early spring simultaneously with early grain crops, during the sowing of heat-loving crops, it can be sown between corn rows. As a cutting crop, it is sown after harvesting winter crops for green fodder or annual grasses.

In the conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zone, it may be expedient to use carrion oilseed sunflower next year by oversowing oats, barley, vetch, peas, their mixtures or other crops in early spring on such fields.

Seeding methods

Sunflower sowing methods can be wide-row, with row spacing of 70 cm (can also be 45 and 60 cm) or dotted.

For sowing, seeders СУПН-8, СУПН-8А, СПЧ-6М or СКПП-12 are used.

The dotted method of sowing makes it possible to relatively achieve the optimal area of ​​plant nutrition and such a density of standing, which ensures the maximum yield of seeds. When determining the optimal plant density, one proceeds from the water availability of sunflower. With insufficient reserves of moisture in the soil, the density of standing is reduced, with sufficient moisture and the introduction of increased doses of fertilizers, it is increased.

For the purpose of obtaining silage from sunflower, it is sown in a mixture with other crops, since in its pure form it contains little dry matter and protein. Most often, sunflower for these purposes is sown in a mixture with oats, vetch, lupine, legumes, and field peas (pelyushka) are more productive than sowing peas. All these crops are sown either simultaneously with sunflower sowing, or they are sown across rows or between rows after inter-row processing in the phase of the first pair of true leaves.

Silage varieties and sunflower hybrids are sown in the usual row, wide-row or dotted methods.

Mixed sowing of sunflower is carried out in the usual ordinary way.

For sowing mixtures, dotted, vegetable and grain seeders are used. In mixed crops, sunflower often does not compete with other crops that are sown in a continuous way.

Seeding rates

Experimental institutions have established the following optimal norms for the density of sunflower plants per 1 ha for various soil and climatic zones of Russia:

European part:

  • for humid forest-steppe and adjacent steppe regions (thick, leached and podzolized chernozems) – 40-50 (60) thousand plants per 1 ha or 30-35 plants per 10 m of row;
  • semi-arid steppe (ordinary chernozems) – 30-40 thousand plants per 1 ha or 20-30 plants per 10 m row;
  • arid steppe (southern chernozems, dark chestnut soils) – 20-30 thousand plants per 1 ha or 15-20 plants per 10 m row.

Asian part:

  • southern forest-steppe (ordinary and rich chernozems of the West Siberian lowland) – 30-40 thousand plants per 1 ha;
  • southern chernozems, dark chestnut soils – 20-30 thousand plants per 1 ha.

When using the industrial technology of sunflower cultivation, the optimal plant density is achieved by sowing the prescribed number of seeds per 1 ha, while additional manual breakthrough of plants is not carried out. Taking into account the field germination and survival of plants, the given number of valuable seeds sown, as a rule, is 25-30% more than the optimal number of plants. For example, with a formed plant density of 40 thousand per 1 ha, it is necessary to sow 50-52 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha. To carry out sowing with such a density, seeding discs are selected that allow sowing 36-37 seeds for every 10 m of a row.

On average, the seeding rate for oilseed varieties and sunflower hybrids is (5) 6-8 (10) kg/ha, for silage – 35-40 kg/ha.

For the wide-row sowing method, the seeding rate varies from 10 to 25 kg/ha, for the continuous row method – from 20 to 40 kg/ha.

Approximate seeding rates for fodder mixtures with sunflower:

  • 60 kg/ha common vetch + 60 kg/ha oats + 40 kg/ha sunflower;
  • 60 kg/ha common vetch + 120 kg/ha oats + 20 kg/ha sunflower;
  • 10-12 kg/ha sunflower + 100-150 kg/ha peas or fodder beans;
  • 18-20 kg/ha sunflower + 100-150 kg/ha pelushka + 40-60 kg/ha oats;
  • 10-12 kg/ha sunflower + 140-160 kg/ha fodder beans;
  • 10-12 kg/ha sunflower + 100-150 kg/ha lupine.

Seeding depth

The sowing depth of sunflower seeds with sufficient moisture in the upper soil layer and on medium-sized soils is 6-7 cm, with insufficient moisture – 8-10 cm.

On heavy loamy soils, as well as in cool and humid spring, the sowing depth is reduced to 5-6 cm, on light sandy loamy soils it is increased.

Crop care

Rolling may be required after sowing to ensure better seed-to-soil contact. Conversely, if the topsoil is over-compacted or crusted, loosening with rotary hoes or light harrows may be required.

As a rule, 4-5 days before germination (or 5-6 days after sowing) sunflower crops are harrowed to destroy the soil crust and destroy shoots and seedlings of weeds. In case of severe contamination, pre-emergence spraying of crops with herbicides is carried out.

After the emergence of seedlings in phase 1-2 (3) pairs of true leaves, a second harrowing is carried out across the rows. So that the plants are not damaged, harrowing is carried out at a low speed closer to noon, when the plant turgor is weakened and they become less brittle.

According to the data of the All-Russian Research Institute of Maize, the efficiency of seedling harrowing mainly depends on the phase of development of weeds. When harrowing is carried out in the phase of white threads and weak shoots of weeds, they are destroyed by 90% or more, with later phases of weed development, the efficiency decreases: with the appearance of 1-2 leaves, they are destroyed by 87%, with 3-4 leaves – by 68% .

Further care for sunflower crops is to perform inter-row cultivation using cultivators of the КРН-4.2 type or implements with wire harrows. The number of inter-row cultivations depends on the infestation and the use of herbicides. For most areas of cultivation, 2-3 inter-row cultivation is recommended. The last cultivation can be carried out on dotted crops with hilling. The first cultivation is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm with a width of the treated strip of 50 cm using weeding harrows. The second cultivation is carried out to a depth of 8-10 cm, the third – to 6-8 (10) cm. The width of the cultivated strips for the second and third cultivation is 45 cm; Inter-row treatments are stopped when the plants reach a height of 60-70 cm.

When carrying out inter-row treatments, attention should be paid to the protective zones of plants, which, with a dotted sowing method, should be up to 40% of the total area. Although these zones protect plants from cutting and soiling during tillage, they are also a breeding ground for weeds.

When using industrial cultivation technology with a proper tillage system and the use of herbicides, the need for inter-row tillage is often eliminated.

Sunflower flowers are pollinated by wind and insects. To prevent empty grains on sunflower crops, pollination with the help of bees is additionally used. To do this, by the beginning of the flowering phase, an apiary is taken to the fields at the rate of 1-2 hives per 1 ha. The effect of the use of bees reaches 0.1-0.15 t/ha of an increase in seed yield. Sometimes artificial pollination can be used for the same purposes.

Sunflower cultivation under irrigation conditions

To obtain high yields of sunflower seeds, despite its drought resistance, large reserves of water in the soil are needed. For example, in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, 172-185 tons of water are needed to obtain 100 kg of seeds (according to other sources, 140-200 tons). In terms of responsiveness to irrigation, sunflower occupies one of the first places among field crops.

Long-term studies of All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds and other experimental research institutions have established that the cultivation of sunflower under irrigation in areas of insufficient moisture in the Volga region, the North Caucasus and Ukraine makes it possible to double the seed yield to 3.5-4.5 t/ha, and increase the oil yield by 0.5-1.0 t/ha, protein – by 0.2-0.3 t/ha. According to the Research Institute of Agriculture of the South-East, the yield of sunflower when grown under irrigation reaches 4.55 t/ha, while without irrigation it is 1.82 t/ha.

When grown under irrigation conditions, water-charging and vegetative irrigation is carried out.

Moisture-charging irrigation is carried out in autumn after autumn tillage. The rate of water consumption is (1200) 2000-3000 m3/ha.

In dry years, three vegetation irrigations are usually carried out:

  • the first – at the beginning of the rapid growth of plants, that is, 2-3 weeks before the start of the flowering phase (or at the stage of formation of 2-3 pairs of leaves);
  • the second – at the beginning of the flowering phase (or the formation of baskets);
  • the third – 7-10 days after the mass flowering (or during the period of mass flowering).

Irrigation rate for vegetative irrigation is 600-800 m3/ha.

The amount and rate of water consumption for vegetation irrigation depend on weather conditions and are determined by soil moisture. Irrigation is most effective provided that soil moisture in the period from germination to flowering is not less than 70%, and in the period from flowering to seed ripening – not less than 80% of the lowest soil moisture capacity.

In conditions of irrigation and sufficient availability of fertilizers, the density of sunflower plants can reach 55-60 thousand/ha.

A feature of sunflower cultivation under irrigation conditions is deep autumn plowing to a depth of 25-30 cm, increased application rates of mineral fertilizers, the use of an integrated plant protection system against diseases, pests and weeds, shallow hilling of plants with moist soil.

Plant protection

When growing sunflower, the herbicide treflan is most widely used with a consumption rate of 5-6 l/ha according to the preparation. The effectiveness of treflan depends on the speed of its incorporation and mixing with the soil. Treflan is applied during pre-sowing cultivation; a gap in time between the application and incorporation of the herbicide is not allowed. Combination of application and simultaneous incorporation is possible when using units consisting of ПОУ, 2КПС-4, СП-11, 8БЗСС-1 and loops.

In sunflower crops, to control annual dicotyledonous weeds, prometrin can be used with a consumption rate of 2.5–3 kg/ha on heavy and medium soils, or 1.5–2 kg/ha on lighter soils.

The most promising, economically justified and environmentally safe is the belt method of applying herbicides simultaneously with sowing. This method of application allows processing only strips along rows with a width of 30-35 cm, while reducing the consumption of the drug by half.

Harvest

The ripening phase in sunflower is characterized by the drying of most of the leaves, yellowing of the back side of the baskets, wilting and falling off of the petals, hardening of the kernel in normally colored achenes. After drying of the baskets, the achenes easily fall out of them, which causes crop losses and an increase in carrion in subsequent crops.

Sunflower harvesting is started in the phase of economic ripeness, that is, when there are at least 90% of yellow-brown, brown and dry heads in the crops, and the moisture content of the seeds is 12-14%. However, such seed moisture is observed very rarely during harvesting, especially in the northern and eastern regions of cultivation. Therefore, immediately after harvesting, the seeds are dried in special dryers to prevent an increase in their moisture in a heap, which contains an admixture of crushed and wet baskets. Drying seeds, in turn, is associated with additional labor and resource costs.

Late harvesting even for 5-6 days leads to significant crop losses.

Of practical interest in this regard is the drying of sunflower plants before harvesting, that is, on the vine (desiccation) by treating crops with magnesium chlorate (20 kg/ha) or reglon 2-3 l/ha (reglon super). Desiccation is carried out after (35) 40-45 (50) days after the full flowering of plants, when the moisture content of the seeds is 30-35%. At this moment, 50-60% yellow, 20-30% yellow-brown and 10-20% brown heads are found in crops. The consumption of magnesium chlorate during aerial spraying is 20 kg/ha or 2-3 kg/ha of reglolon and 100 liters of working fluid.

After spraying, harvesting begins under favorable weather conditions in 10-15 days. The moisture content of the seeds by this time reaches 12-16%. Thanks to desiccation, the productivity of combines can be increased by 1.5-2 times by reducing the harvested mass by almost 2 times and reducing seed losses and total labor costs.

Desiccation of sunflower crops allows you to start harvesting 8-10 days earlier than usual, while seeds are obtained with low humidity. Desiccation does not affect the quality of seeds and does not change their fatty acid composition. Magnesium chlorate is not found in sunflower oil, but it is found in baskets in a sufficiently high amount, so they are not suitable for feed purposes.

Desiccation is especially important for the forest-steppe zone.

Sunflower harvesting is carried out by direct combining with grain combines, for example, СК-5 “Niva”, which are additionally equipped with special devices ПСП-1.5, ПСП-1.5М or 34-103А, as well as trailers 2ПТС-5-887А and universal PUN -5 for chopping and spreading stalks. Combines “Don” for the same purposes are equipped with devices ПСП-8 or ПСП-10. The combine, equipped with ПСП-1.5, cuts the baskets, grinds the seeds and collects the seeds in the bunker. The stems are cut at a height of 10-20 cm, chopped into pieces up to 15 cm long and scattered across the field, threshed baskets are also crushed, collected in vehicles or scattered across the field.

The threshed seeds are cleaned using the ОВП-20 vorohooschitel, then passed through the ОС-4.5А grain cleaning machine or the ЗАВ-20 and ЗАВ-40 units.

The organization of in-line harvesting of sunflower plays an important role. It is necessary to ensure the consistency of the entire complex of technological operations that must be carried out by specialized units at all stages of the technological process: preparing fields for harvesting, threshing and transporting seeds from field to farm, cleaning and drying seeds, exporting seeds to receiving points, collecting and preparing forage threshed baskets, fertilization and soil preparation.

Seeds of high-oil varieties should be stored at a moisture content of not more than (6) 7 (8)% in a layer up to 1 m. Sunflower seeds can be stored in bags with a moisture content of 8-10%. The moisture content of seeds in storage, which are intended for technical purposes, should be no more than 10-12%. Under-dried seeds quickly go rancid and lose their germination capacity.

The stems remaining in the fields can be crushed with heavy disc harrows or cultivators, followed by plowing.

The optimal time for harvesting sunflower for silage is the beginning of flowering, before the stems coarsen. In this case, harvesting starts at the beginning of flowering and ends harvesting by the full flowering phase. The harvesting of mixed sunflower crops with other crops for silage is also started at the beginning or at the full flowering phase. When using sunflower to obtain fresh green mass, they start harvesting in the flowering phase of legumes, ending it by the time of fruit formation. When harvesting is delayed, that is, when sunflowers are mowing after flowering, the quality of the silage is sharply reduced, since the stems become very coarse and the protein content is greatly reduced.

Since the sunflower is a valuable honey plant, its mowing during the flowering phase should be carried out early in the morning and late in the evening when the bees are resting.

For harvesting sunflower in its pure form or mixed with other crops, you can use any forage harvesters.

Resource-saving intensive technology

The resource-saving intensive sunflower cultivation technology is designed to produce 2-2.5 t/ha of seeds and reduce the number of operations from 12-13 with conventional technology to 7-9, as well as to reduce direct labor costs by 20% and reduce production costs by 7- eight%.

The technology provides:

  • scientifically substantiated placement of sunflower in crop rotation;
  • the use of varieties and hybrids of various ripeness, highly productive, zoned, resistant to diseases and suitable for mechanized cultivation;
  • providing plants with nutrients based on the planned harvest;
  • use of seeds of high reproductions and sowing conditions;
  • accurate dosed application of mineral fertilizers;
  • a system complex of technological operations aimed at the efficient use of fuel, energy and other resources;
  • implementation of agricultural practices in optimal time.

The technology provides for the use of moisture-saving, soil-protective methods in the system of main and pre-sowing tillage, while reducing the number of all operations due to the introduction of highly effective herbicides, the use of an integrated system for protecting plants from pests, diseases and weeds, and the formation of a given (taking into account moisture availability) plant density.

The necessary conditions for using the technology are:

  • flow of work during harvesting and post-harvest processing of seeds;
  • use of high-performance and perfect technology;
  • completion of all work within a certain time frame;
  • compliance with agricultural technology;
  • the use of progressive forms of organization and remuneration.

In experiments conducted by the Department of Agriculture and Crop Production of the State University of Healthcare under the guidance of Professor V.S. Niklyaev together with specialists from CJSC “Progress” of the Valuysky district of the Belgorod region in 1995-1997. Sunflower yields using resource-saving technology on an area of ​​150-200 ha averaged 2.2 t/ha over three years (the maximum in 1995 reached 2.4 t/ha), while with conventional technology it was 1.5 t/ha .

In 1995 and 1996 using this technology, the variety Belgorodsky 5 was experimentally grown, and in 1997, the hybrid Veidelevsky 80. They were placed after winter wheat going through a bare fallow. Particular attention was paid to soil cultivation. After wheat harvesting, a thorough disc plowing was carried out to a depth of 8-10 cm, followed by high-quality plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm. methods contributed to a good accumulation of moisture and nutrients, improved air regime of the soil, increased biological activity of the soil, reduced weediness in the field, reduced the number of pests and pathogens of plants.

Before sowing, the field had a well-leveled surface, a dense seed bed, the amount of soil lumps 1-5 cm in size in the treated layer was at least 80% by weight. The presence of lumps more than 10 cm was not observed.

Under pre-sowing cultivation, 150 kg was introduced, as well as simultaneously with sowing 80-100 kg of nitrophoska per 1 ha. Organic fertilizers were applied under the previous crop.

Seed material was treated, seeds of the first reproduction and 1st class were used. Sowing began with a steady warming of the soil at a seeding depth of up to 10-12 °C. Sowing was carried out in a short time by the in-line method, the sowing method was dotted, the row spacing was 70 cm, the seed placement depth was 6-7 cm in the moist surface soil layer. The seeding rate is 60-70 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha (it differed within the specified limits depending on the variety (hybrid) and moisture supply in the year of sowing). Seeding rates were calculated to obtain by the time of harvesting the plant density of 45-50 thousand plants per 1 ha.

The main operations for the care of crops: post-emergence harrowing at the stage of formation of 2-3 pairs of true leaves in sunflower and 2-3 inter-row tillage, depending on the infestation and the nature of the infestation of crops, as well as soil compaction. The first inter-row cultivation was carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm, the second – to a depth of 8-10 cm, the third included the simultaneous sprinkling of weeds in rows using hilling devices.

Desiccation of crops was applied. Harvesting was carried out by grain combines with appropriate devices in a group method. Simultaneously, post-harvest treatment of seeds was carried out.

The economic evaluation of the technology showed a decrease in labor costs for the production of 100 kg of achenes by 12-15% and a decrease in total energy consumption by 8-10%.

Sunflower varieties

Classification

Varieties and hybrids of sunflower, depending on the size of the seeds, their oil content and huskness, are divided into three groups:

  • oilseeds;
  • gnawing;
  • mezheumki.

Oilseed varieties and hydrides are distinguished by a thin stem, 1.5-2.5 m high, a basket 15-20 cm in diameter, small achenes (7) 8-13 (14) mm long and weighing 1000 pieces from 35 to 75 (85) g, low huskiness (22) 25-30 (36)%, large and densely filling the cavity with a core containing (38) 53-56 (63)% oil, which is 40-56% of the weight of the achene. They are of the greatest production importance for the production of vegetable oil. Also more resistant to sunflower moth and broomrape (Orobanche).

Gnawing varieties and hybrids are distinguished by a thick stem up to 4 m tall, a basket 25-40 cm in diameter, large achenes (11) 15-23 (25) mm long, weighing 1000 pieces from 100 to 170 g, with a thick ribbed pericarp, high huskiness 42-56%, the core does not densely fill the cavity (half), oil content 20-35%. Plants of these varieties and hybrids are usually large and tall, so their main purpose is for silage and for obtaining green mass, sometimes for obtaining seeds. Planted in small areas.

Varieties and hybrids of mezheumka occupy an intermediate position according to morphological characteristics. According to the completion of achenes, mezheumki are closer to oil-bearing varieties and hybrids, according to other signs – to gnats.

Armored breeding varieties and hybrids of sunflower – varieties and hybrids, in the peel of the seeds of which there is a black layer of phytomelan, which protects the fruits from sunflower moths and some other pests.

Depending on the length of the growing season, sunflower varieties and hybrids are divided into:

  • mid-season (120-140 days, Vavilov, 1986; according to other sources, 100-110 days, Kolomeichenko, 2007);
  • early ripening (100-120 days, Vavilov, 1986; according to other sources, 90-100 days (mid-early), Kolomeichenko, 2007);
  • super-early ripening (80-100 days, Vavilov, 1986; according to other sources, 80-90 days (early ripening), Kolomeichenko, 2007).

The length of the growing season varies considerably depending on the soil-climatic and weather conditions, however, differences between varieties and hybrids of different groups remain.

Mid-season hybrids and varieties are characterized by the highest yield: sunflower can produce up to 3-4 t/ha in variety plots, 2.5-3.5 t/ha in farms, their oil content is 50-54%, husk content is 19-22%, armor – 98-100%, weight of 1000 seeds from 65 to 85 g, color black-gray, striped. The collection of oil reaches these varieties and hybrids reaches 1.5-2 t/ha.

Mid-early hybrids and sunflower varieties ripen 5-9 days earlier than mid-season ones. Their yield is 2-3 t/ha, oil content is 48-52%.

Early ripe hybrids and varieties of sunflower yield 8-12 days earlier than mid-season ones. They are usually cultivated in the northern and eastern regions of Russia (Western Siberia, the Volga region, the Central Black Earth zone). Productivity is 1.5-2.5 t/ha, oil content is 41-53%.

To obtain high and stable yields over the years in farms specializing in sunflower cultivation, it is advisable to sow 2-3 hybrids or varieties with different ripening periods.

In agricultural production, oilseed hybrids or sunflower varieties are often used for fodder purposes, which give low yields of green fodder. However, for fodder purposes, special silage varieties are more suitable, which are distinguished by greater branching and foliage, forming many baskets, and their green mass is more tender. The green mass of such varieties and hybrids contains 12.4% protein, 26.2% fiber, 11.5% ash. In comparison, early maturing sunflower varieties contain 7.0% protein, 32.4% fiber and 8.6% ash.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Oilseed crops

Oilseed crops are a group of crops grown for various oils and fats. The seeds or fruits of these plants contain a large amount of vegetable fats (oils).

The following oilseed crops are grown in Russia:

  • sunflower;
  • soybean;
  • common flax;
  • mustard;
  • rapeseed;
  • castor beans;
  • safflower;
  • peanuts;
  • camelina;
  • barbarea;
  • sesame;
  • poppy;
  • perilla;
  • lallemancy.

Plants are also used to produce oils, which may also belong to other types of crops, for example, soybean, fiber flax, hemp, cotton.

Meaning

The sown area occupied by annual oilseed crops in the world is over 80 million hectares (Niklyaev, 2000). According to other sources, at the end of the 20th century. the total sown area occupied by oilseeds in the world was about 175 million hectares, or 13% of the total sown area (Kolomeichenko).

The largest areas under oilseeds in the world are concentrated in the USA, Canada, China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Pakistan and Russia.

In world agriculture, more than 50 plant species of various families are used, which are oilseeds. However, 97% of the total oilseed production comes from only 5 crops: soybeans (51%), cotton (14%), rapeseed (12%), peanuts (11%) and sunflower (10%).

The gross harvest of oilseeds in the world was about 260 million tons (2007) with an average yield of 1.5 t/ha.

In Russia, oilseeds were occupied in the 90s about 5 million hectares, in 2001-2005. – 5.4 million hectares or 6.6% of the total sown area of ​​the country. The main regions of cultivation are the North Caucasus, the Central Black Earth zone, the Volga region, Western Siberia and the Far East. Of the countries of the former USSR, large areas under oilseed crops were in Ukraine.

Waste that remains after the extraction of oil from seeds: cake and meal with a protein content of 35-40%, serve as a highly valuable concentrated feed for farm animals. Soybean meal is also used to produce casein, glue and plastics. The stalks of many oilseeds can be used as fuel, paper, burlap and potash.

Many oilseeds are good honey plants.

The main ways to increase the production of oilseed crops are the development and introduction of new high-yielding varieties with a high oil content, the use of advanced growing technologies.

Vegetable oils

Vegetable oils are esters of the trihydric alcohol glycerol and fatty acids.

The energy value of 1 g of oil is 39.8 kJ, which is twice as much as the energy value of 1 protein (18.4-23 kJ) or carbohydrates (16.1-17.6 kJ).

Vegetable oils are used in the food industry and for the production of industrial products: varnishes, paints, drying oils, soaps, stearin, linoleum, lubricants, etc. They are used in the leather and textile industries, in medicine and other sectors of the economy.

Vegetable oils are divided into:

  • drying – oils with an iodine number of 1 over 130;
  • semi-drying – oils with an iodine number from 85 to 130;
  • non-drying – oils with an iodine value of less than 85.

Drying oils include: linseed, perilla, camelina and others. They are mainly used for technical purposes.

Semi-drying oils include: sunflower, rapeseed, mustard, poppy, soybean and others. They are mainly used for food purposes.

Non-drying oils include: castor bean, castor, peanut. The first two are used for technical purposes and the pharmaceutical industry. Peanut butter – for food purposes.

The oil content of oilseeds ranges from 20 to 63%. The amount of oil in the seeds varies greatly and depends on the amount of heat, water regime, variety, sowing time, care, fertilizers and geographic latitude. Thus, changing the conditions of cultivation and agricultural technology makes it possible to regulate the content and quality of oil in plants.

A warm climate contributes to an increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in vegetable oil and a decrease in its iodine number. In a cool climate, on the contrary, the content of unsaturated fatty acids increases and the iodine value of the oil increases.

One of the key indicators for assessing the quality of oil is the acid number, which characterizes the content of free fatty acids in the oil. Acid number – the amount of sodium or potassium hydroxide (caustic sodium / potassium) in mg, necessary to neutralize the free fatty acids contained in 1 g of oil.

For oils used in the soap industry, the saponification number matters. The saponification number is the amount of sodium or potassium hydroxide in milligrams required to neutralize free and glycerol-bound fatty acids in 1 g of oil. The saponification number for most vegetable fats is in the range of 170-200.

Table. Oil content and quality in oilseeds[1]Crop production/P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and teaching aids … Continue reading

Crop
OIL CONTENT, % OF DRY MATTER OF SEEDS
IODINE NUMBER
ACID NUMBER
SAPONIFICATION NUMBER
Sunflower
29,0-57,0
119-144
0,1-2,4
183-196
Safflower
25,0-37,0
115-155
0,8-5,8
194-203
Brown mustard
35,2-47,0
92-119
0,0-3,0
182-183
Winter rapeseed
45,0-49,6
94-112
0,1-11,0
167-185
Camelina
25,6-46,0
132-153
0,2-13,2
181-188
Castor bean
47,2-58,2
81-86
1,0-6,8
182-187
Sesame
48,0-63,0
103-112
0,2-2,3
186-195
Perilla
26,1-49,6
181-206
0,6-3,9
189-197
Lallemancy
29,3-37,6
162-203
0,8-4,4
181-185
Peanut
41,2-55,2
90-103
0,03-2,24
182-207
Soybean
15,5-24,5
107-137
0,0-5,7
190-212
Oilseed flax
30,0-47,8
165-192
0,5-3,5
186-195

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, most oilseed crops are grown as row crops and are of great agrotechnical importance. After them, the fields remain in a fairly clean and loose state.

Oilseeds serve as a good predecessor for grain crops in crop rotation.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Zucchini

Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo) or zucchini is a gourd crop of food and fodder value, a type of pumpkin.

Summer squash, a group of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo)
Summer squash, a group of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo)
Source: commons.wikimedia.org
©Silar (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Economic importance

In addition to table use, it is also used for feed purposes as a succulent feed. Due to the short growing season and the rapid growth of fruits, zucchini crops move farthest to the north, compared to other gourds.

The fruits and tops of zucchini are suitable for ensiling mixed with other crops, such as corn , sunflower , vetch-oat mixture. In terms of nutritional value and digestibility, it is not inferior to fodder beet and turnip. 100 kg of zucchini fruits correspond to 6.7-9.7 feed units and contain 0.7-1.0 kg of digestible protein, 100 kg of tops – 3.7 feed units and 0.8 kg, respectively.

Honey plant.

Cultural history

The zucchini comes from Central America.

Yield

Productivity reaches 40-50 t/ha.

Botanical description

Zucchini – a kind of pumpkin – Cucurbita pero var. giraumonas Duch.

The root is well developed.

The stem is short, pubescent, leafy.

Leaves are pentagonal, pubescent.

Flowers unisexual, solitary, yellow. The plant is monoecious.

Fruits are oblong-irregularly cylindrical in shape with a grayish-white, greenish, pinkish color. When used in an unripe form, the bark is soft, when ripe it becomes hard.

Seeds are elongated flat, yellow, 2 times smaller than those of a pumpkin. Weight of 1000 pieces – 60-80 g.

Biological features

Zucchini is less demanding on heat than other gourds, but is also easily damaged by frost. Drought tolerant.

Seedlings appear at a temperature of 11-12 °C, preferably at 14-15 °C.

It is not picky about soils, but infertile, heavy, floating, waterlogged, acidic and solonetsous are not suitable.

Agricultural technology of cultivation

General recommendations on agricultural practices for cultivating zucchini are similar to those for all gourds.

Sowing

Recommended sowing schemes 0.7×0.7 m or 0.7×1.0 m.

The seeding rate is 2.4 kg/ha (10-20 thousand seeds/ha). The depth of sowing seeds is 4-6 cm. 1-2 plants are planted in the nest.

Harvest

Harvesting of zucchini fruits is carried out in 2-3 doses as they ripen.

Zucchini fruits for food purposes are harvested young until the peel is coarsened and the size is 20-25 cm. Fruits are harvested regularly at intervals of 10-15 days, which contributes to the formation of new ovaries and their accelerated development.

In warm and dry rooms, fruits can be stored all winter.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Pumpkin

Winter squash or pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) is a gourd crop of food and fodder value.

 
Pumpkin or winter squash (Cucurbita maxima)
Pumpkin or winter squash (Cucurbita maxima)
Source: commons.wikimedia.org
©Nino Barbieri (CC BY-SA 2.5)

Economic importance

Pumpkin with yellow flesh contains a lot of phosphorus, carotene, phytoncides. The fruits are used to make candied fruits and honey (from juice).

Forage varieties of pumpkin are used for livestock feed, they have a milk-producing property. 100 kg of fodder gourds correspond to 10 feed units and contain 70 g of digestible protein.

The average chemical composition of pumpkin fruits: dry matter – 8-12%; protein – 1.0%; carbohydrates – 6.5%; pectin substances – 1.0%; fiber – 0.7%, ash substances – 0.6%. It also contains iron and vitamins. The content of carotene is superior to carrots.

It is used in raw, baked, steamed, fried form, it can be used to make mashed potatoes, jams and candied fruits.

Honey culture.

It has been used for medicinal purposes since antiquity, with increased acidity, gastric catarrhs, ulcers, inflammation of the large intestine, constipation, obesity, edema, helminthiasis, burns, rashes, insomnia.

Pumpkin seeds contain up to 52% edible oil.

One of the best fodder crops in dry and dry steppe zones. Keeps well up to 1-2 years. 100 kg of pumpkin fruits correspond to 8-15 feed units and contain 0.7-1.1 kg of digestible protein. 100 kg of silage – 15.5 feed units and 1.3 kg of protein.

Cultural history

Pumpkin comes from South and Central America.

Cultivation areas

Pumpkin is grown on the territory of the central regions of the Non-Chernozem zone, the Central Black Earth zone, beyond the Urals and Siberia.

Yield

The pumpkin yield ranges from 30 t/ha to 80 t/ha.

Botanical description

In culture, pumpkin is represented by three types:

  • ordinary dining room, or hard-bark, – Cucurbita pepo L .;
  • fodder large-fruited – Cucurbita maxima L.;
  • nutmeg – Cucurbita moschata Duch.

There is also a bush form – zucchini.

The root system is powerful, pivotal, well developed.

The stem is ordinary, creeping, creeping, branching, cylindrical, hollow.

The leaves are five-lobed, with coarse styloid pubescence.

Flowers are dioecious. Men’s are collected in several pieces in the axils of the leaves. Female flowers are solitary, located on the side branches. The plant is monoecious.

The fruit is obovate, spherical or oblong, smooth or ribbed, with fibrous sweet pulp. The size in diameter is up to 50-70 cm. The sugar content is 4-8%.

Seeds of various sizes, oval, with a clear rim, shiny, white, cream or dark. Oil content 36-52%. Weight of 1000 seeds 200-300 g.

Large-fruited fodder pumpkin

The fodder large-fruited pumpkin is distinguished by a cylindrical, hollow, creeping stem.

The leaves are reniform, weakly serrated, with coarse hairs.

The flowers are large, orange-yellow.

The fruits are spherical, flattened or elongated, reaching 50-70 cm in diameter, the color is different. The pulp is friable, juicy, orange, sometimes white, the sugar content is 4-8% sugar.

Seeds are large up to 2-3 cm, smooth, with an indistinct rim. Oil content 36-50%. Weight of 1000 seeds 240-300 g.

Muscat pumpkin

Muscat pumpkin is distinguished by a creeping, branched, rounded stem.

The leaves are kidney-shaped, cordate-notched or lobed, have fine hairs.

Flowers green or reddish-orange.

The fruit is elongated, with interception, the pulp is dense. Sugar content 8-11% sugar.

Seeds of medium size, gray with a pronounced rim. Oil content 30-46% oil. Weight of 1000 seeds 190-220 g.

Biological features

Pumpkin, unlike melon and watermelon, is less thermophilic and drought-resistant, and also photophilous.

Seeds germinate at a temperature of 10-13 °C. Seedlings are more resistant to low temperatures.

Loamy, cohesive, fertile soils are optimal.

Agricultural technology of cultivation

General recommendations for the cultivation of pumpkins are similar to those for all gourds.

Fertilizer

Under the pumpkin with deep autumn tillage, 30-40 t/ha of manure are applied . Higher doses may delay fruit ripening and reduce fruit quality.

Sowing

The optimal time for sowing pumpkin seeds is when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm is 9-10 °C. Seedlings appear in 6-7 days.

Recommended sowing patterns: 2.5×1.8-2.0 m or 2.8×1.5-1.8 m.

The seeding rate is 3-5 kg/ha (2.3-4.6 thousand seeds/ha). The depth of sowing seeds is 6-8 cm. 1-2 plants are planted in one nest.

Harvest

Pumpkin harvesting is carried out in one step before the onset of frost. When harvesting pumpkins on fruits, it is recommended to leave the stalks for better keeping quality.

The ripeness of pumpkin fruits is determined by the color and density of the peel.

When harvesting pumpkins, it is economically justified to mechanized collection of fruits into swaths using a УПВ-8 swather, followed by the selection of swaths by a ПБВ-1 picker and their soft laying in vehicles. The technology reduces labor costs by 5-8 times compared to harvesting fruits with the removal to the side of the field.

Undamaged fruits are suitable for storage. The pumpkin storage temperature is 10 °C and the relative humidity is 70-75%.

In warm and dry rooms, fruits can be stored all winter.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.