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Anise

Anise (ganus) is an essential oil crop. Also applies to medicinal and spicy plants.

Economic importance

Anise seeds contain 1.5-4% essential oil and (16) 18-22% fat.

The composition of the essential oil includes anethole (up to 80%), which is widely used in the perfumery, pharmaceutical and food (alcoholic beverage and confectionery) industries. Fatty oil finds application in paint and varnish production and soap production. Anise essential oil for medical purposes is used to treat the stomach, with colds as an expectorant. Included in the composition of medical fees (teas).

Anise seeds are used in baking, for the production of canned food and confectionery.

Anise seed cake serves as a valuable concentrated feed for cattle, pigs and poultry. 100 kg of cake correspond to 85 feed units.

Good honey plant.

Crop history

Anise is native to Asia Minor. In culture, it began to be grown BC in Egypt, Greece and Rome.

In Russia, this culture began to grow in the 30s of the XIX century.

Cultivation areas and yield

Anise is grown in many countries of Asia (India, China) and Europe (countries of the Balkan Peninsula, Germany, France, the Netherlands), but the sown areas are relatively small. Also grown in America.

In 1986, the sown area under this crop in the USSR was about 2 thousand hectares.

The main areas of cultivation are the Voronezh, Belgorod and Kursk regions. In small quantities, it is also sown in the forest-steppe part of Ukraine.

The yield of anise seeds is usually 0.8-1.0 t/ha.

Botanical description

Anise, or common anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is an annual plant belonging to the Umbrella or Celery family (Apiaceae).

Taproot, well developed.

Stem erect, branched above.

Plant height 40-60 cm.

The leaves are alternate. The lower leaves are rounded or kidney-shaped, on long petioles. The middle ones are trifoliate, on petioles of shorter length. The upper ones are strongly dissected into linear segments, without petioles (sessile).

The inflorescence is a complex umbrella. Flowers small, white.

The fruit is an ovoid, oblate-ovate or pear-shaped two-seeded, consisting of two single-seeded non-cracking greenish-gray fruitlets. Surface with short adpressed hairs, with many longitudinal ribs, in which tubules with essential oil are located. The taste of the fruit is sweet and spicy. The weight of 1000 seeds is 3.5-4 g.

Biological features

Anise is considered to be heat demanding.

Seeds begin to germinate slowly at a temperature of 4-5 °C. The optimum germination temperature is over 10 °C.

The optimum temperature for the growth and development of anise is 24-25 °C.

The greatest need for heat falls on the period from the beginning of flowering to seed maturation.

For seeds to swell, moisture of 120% of their mass is necessary.

The greatest need for water falls on the period of flowering and seed formation.

Light-loving plant.

Demanding on the soil. Fertile, weed-free chernozems are optimally suited.

Vegetation

The vegetation period of anise is 120-130 days.

The following phases of growth and development are noted:

  • seedlings;
  • socket;
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter cereal and tilled crops are considered to be the best predecessors of anise.

Bad predecessors are coriander, which clogs subsequent crops with carrion.

Fertilizer system

Anise responds well to fertilization.

N45-60P45-60K45-60 (Vavilov) is applied as the main fertilizer. According to other recommendations, N45P60K30 (Kolomeichenko). Also, N60-80P60-80K60-80 (Niklyaev).

When sowing, granular superphosphate is applied at the rate of 10 kg/ha P2O5.

When a rosette of leaves is formed, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers in the calculation of NP at 10-15 kg/ha (Vavilov). According to other recommendations, N20.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for anise includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm (after winter crops, peeling is carried out before plowing);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.

Sowing

Before sowing, air-heat treatment of seeds is carried out for 2-3 days.

Sowing begins simultaneously with the sowing of early grain crops (or simultaneously with coriander).

Usually, a wide-row sowing method is used with row spacing of 45 cm or a two-row belt method with a distance between ribbons of 45 cm, in ribbons between rows, a distance of 15 cm (45x15x15 cm). On weed-free fields, the usual row method can be used.

Seeding rates:

  • for a wide-row sowing method – 12 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations 10-15 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko);
  • for two-line tape – 14 kg/ha;
  • for an ordinary soldier – 18 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other
  • recommendations 20-25 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko).

Sowing depth 2-3 cm, in case of drying of the soil – 4-5 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes: pre-emergence harrowing using light harrows across the rows and at least three inter-row tillage.

Harvest

Seed ripening in anise is uneven. Delay in cleaning leads to shedding.

Anise harvesting can be performed in a single-phase and two-phase method.

Single-phase harvesting is used in unstable weather, on sparse and fallen crops. In this case, harvesting begins at the beginning of the full ripeness of the seeds.

Two-phase harvesting is used in fields with normal plant density. They start when the seeds acquire a greenish-gray color (or when the fruits of medium umbrellas become grayish).

After threshing, if necessary, the seeds are dried. For storage lay seeds with a moisture content of not more than 12%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.