Awnless brome is used in meadow and field grass planting in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of Russia. In field crop rotations, it can be grown in hatch fields.
It is used to obtain hay, green fodder and artificial pastures.
100 kg of hay corresponds to 57.2 feed units and contains 5.9 kg of digestible protein. 100 kg of fresh grass – 29.3 feed units and 3.0 kg of digestible protein, respectively.
Suitable for grassing eroded sloping lands.
Previously not recommended for field rotations, as it was assumed that the rhizomes would grow back after plowing the formation. Experiments have shown that after deep plowing there is no significant threat to subsequent crops. Thus, awnless brome is suitable for growing in fodder and field crop rotations, as well as for radical improvement of beams mixed with legumes.
Grows well after mowing and grazing. The highest yield with the preservation of productivity with age is shown with single-cut use, when mowing is carried out in the flowering phase.
It is considered a valuable crop for improving floodplain meadows and pastures.
It was introduced into culture in the middle of the 19th century. in the Voronezh province.
Due to its high ecological plasticity, it can grow in various conditions, up to the Arctic Circle.
Cultivated in the northern, northwestern, central regions of the European part of Russia, Western and Eastern Siberia, Altai Territory.
Under favorable cultivation conditions, the yield of hay is 6-8 t/ha of hay and 700-900 kg/ha of seeds.
In water meadows, the yield of hay reaches 5-8 t/ha.
Under irrigation conditions in the Kaluga region, a mixture of awnless brome and meadow timothy gave a yield of 11.8 t/ha of hay.
Rye includes over 20 species. In agricultural production, awnless brome (Bromopsis inermis Holub) is a perennial grass of a riding type.
The root system is fibrous (rhizome), powerful. It has the ability to take root in the nodes, which leads to the formation of new bushes. The length of the rhizomes is 5-20 cm, occurring at a depth of 8-15 cm, which determines the high winter hardiness. The roots penetrate to a depth of 1-2 m. It leaves a large amount of root residues in the soil.
The stems are straight, smooth, hard, well leafy, 70-200 cm high.
The leaves are broadly linear, long, flat, relatively coarse, rough along the edge.
Inflorescence – panicle. The flowers are large, collected in spikelets, forming a large panicle. Before flowering, the panicle may be inclined (one-maned), after flowering – upright, sprawling. At the ends of the branches of the panicle are many-flowered spikelets.
Fruiting is usually abundant, the seeds are large, dark gray, oblong. The caryopsis is densely covered with flower scales. Weight of 1000 pieces – 3-4 g.
The awnless rump has two forms:
- northern, or meadow, common in the forest zone;
- southern, or steppe, common in the steppe zone.
Both forms are found in the forest-steppe zone.
The awnless rump is characterized by high ecological plasticity and adaptability to various external conditions.
Winter hardiness, cold hardiness and drought resistance are good. Able to endure harsh snowless winters, spring frosts.
Awnless rump can withstand flooding for up to 30-45 days.
It grows poorly on acidic, highly compacted, heavy clay and waterlogged soils. Can grow on solonets soils. Suitable for cultivation are permeable soils of water meadows, loamy, humus-rich soils. It works well on slopes and fixed sands, on floodplain and estuary meadows with a shallow groundwater table, also during irrigation. Undemanding to soils.
Loose, permeable sandy or loamy chernozems, as well as alluvial soils, are optimally suited, due to favorable conditions for the development of rhizomes. The subsoil should also preferably be loose.
In the first year of life, when sown under cover, it grows slowly, with uncovered sowing and sufficient moisture, it can produce hay mowing by autumn.
In subsequent years of life in the spring, growth starts early, allowing you to get early green fodder. The full development of plants occurs at 2-3 years of life, during the same period it is removed for seeds.
The greatest hay yields are obtained for 3-6 years of life. In the herbage it lasts up to 8-12 years, with the use of fertilizers on floodplain lands – more than 20 years.
The type of development is winter-spring.
Awnless rump, as a rule, is sown in early spring under cover or without cover. Summer sowing is also possible in the second half of July.
The seeding rate of seeds of awnless brome with ordinary net sowing is 16-20 kg/ha, with wide-row – 10-11 kg/ha. When grown for fodder purposes in grass mixtures, the seeding rate is 8-12 kg/ha, in mixtures with other rhizomatous cereals – 5-6 kg/ha.
Sowing depth 3-4 cm.
Seeds are characterized by poor flowability, therefore, before sowing, they are passed through a vegetable grater with rubber rubbing surfaces. After such processing, they are suitable for sowing by any seeders.
When grown for seed purposes, the recommended sowing rate for continuous sowing is 20-25 kg/ha, wide-row – 8-10 kg/ha.
Good hay (especially for horses) is obtained by cutting before flowering, when panicles appear. When mowing after flowering, the hay becomes rough.
Awnless rump is harvested for seeds by direct combining in the phase of full seed ripeness or by a two-phase method. In the latter case, mowing is carried out in the phase of wax ripeness of the seeds. After harvesting, the seeds are cleaned of impurities, dried and stored for long-term storage.
Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).
V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.
Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.