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Cumin

Cumin (also Caraway, Carum carvi) is an essential oil crop.

Economic importance

Cumin fruits contain 4-7% essential oil. The essential oil contains carvone, which is used as a flavoring agent in liqueurs, and limonene, which is used in perfumery.

14-16% fatty oil is also obtained from the fruits, which is used for technical purposes. The seeds are used as a spice and in baked goods.

Good honey plant.

Cultivation areas and yield

Small areas under cumin cultivation during the Soviet period were in the Khmelnytsky and Lvov regions of Ukraine.

On the territory of Russia, as an agricultural crop, it is grown in the Non-Chernozem and Central Black Earth zones.

The average seed yield is 0.6-0.8 t/ha.

Botanical description

Cumin (Carum carvi L.) is a biennial plant belonging to the Celery family (Apiaceae).

Large tap root.

Stem hollow, erect, branched.

Plant height 50-70 cm.

The leaves are alternate, tripartite.

The inflorescence is a complex umbrella. The flowers are located on long stalks, white.

The fruit is a two-seed, consisting of two one-seeded fruitlets. On the surface of the fruit there are ten longitudinal ribs, in which there are tubules with essential oil. The weight of 1000 seeds is 2.3-2.5 g.

Biological features

Cumin is a culture undemanding to heat.

Makes high demands on moisture and soil. Fertile soils and sufficient moisture are optimal for it.

Light-loving plant.

Vegetation

In the first year of life, the cumin plant develops a root and a rosette of leaves. Fruiting occurs in the second year.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, the best predecessors of cumin are considered winter cereals, coming after the fallow into which manure was introduced, legumes.

Fertilizer system

Cumin responds well to fertilization.

N45-60P45-60K45-60 is applied as the main fertilizer .

When sowing, granular superphosphate is applied at the rate of 10 kg/ha P2O5.

When a rosette of leaves is formed, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers in the calculation of NP at 10-15 kg/ha.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for cumin includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm (after winter crops, peeling is carried out before plowing);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.

Sowing

Start sowing cumin early in the spring.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 45 cm.

The seeding rate is 10-12 kg/ha.

Seeding depth 2 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes: loosening row spacing to break the soil crust and kill weeds.

In the first year of plant life, light hilling is carried out in autumn to protect them from freezing.

In the second year of life in early spring, harrowing is carried out across the rows.

Harvest

Harvesting of cumin seeds is started when 60% of the fruits are browned.

The cleaning method is single-phase. It is carried out by grain combines.

For storage lay seeds with a moisture content of not more than 12%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.