Oilseeds are a group of crops grown for various oils and fats. The seeds or fruits of these plants contain a large amount of vegetable fats (oils).
The following oilseeds are grown in Russia:
- common flax;
- castor beans;
Plants are also used to produce oils, which may also belong to other types of crops, for example, soybean, fiber flax, hemp, cotton.
The sown area occupied by annual oilseeds in the world is over 80 million hectares (Niklyaev, 2000). According to other sources, at the end of the 20th century. the total sown area occupied by oilseeds in the world was about 175 million hectares, or 13% of the total sown area (Kolomeichenko).
The largest areas under oilseeds in the world are concentrated in the USA, Canada, China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Pakistan and Russia.
In world agriculture, more than 50 plant species of various families are used, which are oilseeds. However, 97% of the total oilseed production comes from only 5 crops: soybeans (51%), cotton (14%), rapeseed (12%), peanuts (11%) and sunflower (10%).
The gross harvest of oilseeds in the world was about 260 million tons (2007) with an average yield of 1.5 t/ha.
In Russia, oilseeds were occupied in the 90s about 5 million hectares, in 2001-2005. – 5.4 million hectares or 6.6% of the total sown area of the country. The main regions of cultivation are the North Caucasus, the Central Black Earth zone, the Volga region, Western Siberia and the Far East. Of the countries of the former USSR, large areas under oilseeds were in Ukraine.
Waste that remains after the extraction of oil from seeds: cake and meal with a protein content of 35-40%, serve as a highly valuable concentrated feed for farm animals. Soybean meal is also used to produce casein, glue and plastics. The stalks of many oilseeds can be used as fuel, paper, burlap and potash.
Many oilseeds are good honey plants.
The main ways to increase the production of oilseeds are the development and introduction of new high-yielding varieties with a high oil content, the use of advanced growing technologies.
Vegetable oils are esters of the trihydric alcohol glycerol and fatty acids.
The energy value of 1 g of oil is 39.8 kJ, which is twice as much as the energy value of 1 protein (18.4-23 kJ) or carbohydrates (16.1-17.6 kJ).
Vegetable oils are used in the food industry and for the production of industrial products: varnishes, paints, drying oils, soaps, stearin, linoleum, lubricants, etc. They are used in the leather and textile industries, in medicine and other sectors of the economy.
Vegetable oils are divided into:
- drying – oils with an iodine number of 1 over 130;
- semi-drying – oils with an iodine number from 85 to 130;
- non-drying – oils with an iodine value of less than 85.
Drying oils include: linseed, perilla, camelina and others. They are mainly used for technical purposes.
Semi-drying oils include: sunflower, rapeseed, mustard, poppy, soybean and others. They are mainly used for food purposes.
Non-drying oils include: castor bean, castor, peanut. The first two are used for technical purposes and the pharmaceutical industry. Peanut butter – for food purposes.
The oil content of oilseeds ranges from 20 to 63%. The amount of oil in the seeds varies greatly and depends on the amount of heat, water regime, variety, sowing time, care, fertilizers and geographic latitude. Thus, changing the conditions of cultivation and agricultural technology makes it possible to regulate the content and quality of oil in plants.
A warm climate contributes to an increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in vegetable oil and a decrease in its iodine number. In a cool climate, on the contrary, the content of unsaturated fatty acids increases and the iodine value of the oil increases.
One of the key indicators for assessing the quality of oil is the acid number, which characterizes the content of free fatty acids in the oil. Acid number – the amount of sodium or potassium hydroxide (caustic sodium / potassium) in mg, necessary to neutralize the free fatty acids contained in 1 g of oil.
For oils used in the soap industry, the saponification number matters. The saponification number is the amount of sodium or potassium hydroxide in milligrams required to neutralize free and glycerol-bound fatty acids in 1 g of oil. The saponification number for most vegetable fats is in the range of 170-200.
Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).
V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.
Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.