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Fiber flax

Fiber flax is an agricultural fiber crop.

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Horticulture

Economic importance

The flax stem contains 20-30% of bast, in highly productive varieties and more. Linen fiber is characterized by high technological properties: strength, flexibility, thinness, etc. It is 2 times stronger than cotton fiber, three times woolen and second only to silk.

Linen fiber is used for the production of household, technical, container and packaging fabrics. From 1 kg of fiber, 10 m2 of batiste or 2.4 m 2 of linen, 1.6 m2 of technical fabrics or 1 m2 of tarpaulin are produced. Linen fabrics are wear-resistant and resist decay. They are in demand all over the world.

In the production of fabrics, flax fiber is considered one of the best components when used together with chemical fibers.

Flax seeds contain 35-42% by weight of seeds of a well-drying oil, which is used in the production of paints, varnishes, drying oils, in soap making, paper, electrical and other industries, as well as in medicine and perfumery. A small part of linseed oil is used for food purposes.

Flaxseed cake serves as a good concentrated feed for livestock. 1 kg corresponds to 1.15 feed units. It contains 6-12% fat and up to 30 (36)% digestible protein.

When processing trusts into fiber, short spun fiber (tow) is obtained, which is used for the manufacture of sack and packaging fabrics, as well as non-spun fiber (tow), which is used to make ropes, twine and as caulking material. Bonfire (stem wood) serves as a raw material in the production of cardboard, ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, acetone and other materials, is used for the production of building boards (fireplates) and insulating materials.

The wood of the stems can serve as organic fertilizer and be used as fuel.

Flax has medicinal value.

The share of flax straw in the yield of fiber flax is 70-75%, and with high yields – about 80%. The share of seeds is 10-15% (in seed crops up to 30%) and the share of chaff is 10-15% of chaff. The output of the trust from the harvest of flax straw averages 70%.

Crop history

Flax is one of the oldest crops of agriculture. It was known in India, China, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia for 4-5 thousand years BC. It is assumed that the birthplace of this culture is Southwest and East Asia, as well as the Mediterranean.

On the territory of Russia, it was grown in ancient times. Back in the XII century. flax was grown in the Novgorod and Pskov principalities. Linen was used to make fabrics and other products that were used not only to meet their needs, but also for exchange. In the XV century. the volume of export of fiber and flax seeds to other countries has reached the largest size. In the XVI century. The first rope factory was built in Russia. In 1711, Peter 1 issued a decree on the expansion of flax sowing, and a little later, a decree appeared on the norms of flax sowing. At the same time, state-owned linen factories were built, producing wide linen sheets for sails and other needs. Until the end of the XVIII century. flax fiber occupied the first place among Russian goods intended for export.

Pskov, Novgorod, Kashin, Kostroma flax were especially known on the world market. At the beginning of the XX century. The Russian Empire was the main supplier of flax fiber.

Prior to the widespread introduction of sunflower in the Russian Empire, oilseed flax served as the most important source of vegetable fat and fodder cake.

Cultivation areas and yield

The area under fiber flax crops in the world in the mid-1980s was 1.5 million hectares, while more than 70% of the world area (1.06-1.1 million hectares) was concentrated in the USSR.

Significant areas of crops are available in the Netherlands, Belgium, France, England, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, and on limited areas also in Canada, the USA and Japan.

The area under oil flax crops in the world was 1.06 million hectares. The share of the USSR accounted for 10% (90 thousand hectares) of the world’s area. Large arrays of it were in Argentina, USA, Canada, India.

Fiber flax is grown in Russia in regions of a humid and temperate climate, oilseed flax – in drier and warmer regions. The main crops of fiber flax are located in the Non-Chernozem zone (Tver, Smolensk, Yaroslavl, Vologda, Pskov, Kostroma and other regions), as well as in Belarus, Ukraine, and the Baltic countries.

In the early 2000s the area occupied by fiber flax in Russia is 120 thousand hectares. During the period from 1970 to 2000, the area under crops was sharply reduced: in 1970, 727 thousand hectares were occupied; 1980 – 595 thousand hectares; 1990 – 418 thousand hectares; 2000 – 108 thousand hectares. The gross harvest of flax fiber also dropped sharply: from 207 thousand tons in 1971-1975. up to 52 thousand tons by the beginning of the 2000s.

Oil flax crops in Russia are located in the Central Black Earth zone, the Volga region, Western Siberia, as well as in Kazakhstan, in the steppe part of Ukraine, in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia.

The yield of flax fiber in 1976-1980 in the USSR, the average was 3.4 c/ha, in 1984 – 3.8 c/ha. In terms of the gross harvest of flax fiber, the USSR ranked first in the world. The maximum yield was obtained in the Pochinkovsky district of the Smolensk region (1983) on an area of ​​9 thousand hectares and amounted to 7 centners per hectare of fiber and 4 centners per hectare of seeds.

Botanical description

The genus Linum of the Flax family (Linaceae) includes more than 200 species that are distributed in temperate and subtropical regions of all parts of the world. These are predominantly annual, sometimes perennial herbaceous plants.

On the territory of Russia and the countries of the former USSR, 40-45 types of flax are found. Among them, flax is of agricultural importance – Linum usitatissimum L.

According to the modern classification, common flax is divided into five subspecies, of which only 3 are of greatest importance in Russia:

  • Mediterranean subspecies – subsp. mediterraneum Vav. et El . Plants are undersized (up to 50 cm). Flowers, bolls and seeds are large. Weight of 1000 seeds 10-13 g. Cultivated in the Mediterranean countries.
  • Intermediate subspecies subsp. transitorium ell . Plants of medium height (50-60 cm). Flowers, bolls and seeds of medium size. Weight of 1000 seeds 6-9 g. Distributed as an oilseed crop in the south of Ukraine, in the Crimea, Transcaucasia and Kazakhstan.
  • Eurasian subspecies – subsp. eurasiaticum Vav. et El . Plants varying in height and branching. Flowers, bolls and seeds are small. The weight of 1000 seeds is 3-5 g. The most common subspecies in the culture. Cultivated in Europe and Asia.

The Eurasian subspecies is also subdivided into 4 groups of varieties:

  1. Fiber flax (elongata). Tall (from 60 to 120 (175) cm) single stem plants, branching only in the upper part. Stems are light green or bluish green. Leaves lanceolate, sessile. The flowers are regular, quintuple type, with blue, pink or white petals. Five stamens with blue, orange or yellow anthers. Pistil with five-celled ovary and five styles. The fruit is a five-celled capsule, divided by partitions into ten half-nests. One seed develops in each semi-nest. Seeds are flat, ovoid, brown or brown. On one plant, depending on the density of crops, from 2-3 to 8-10 seed pods are formed. The root system of fiber flax is underdeveloped, it consists of the main tap root and small tender branches located in the upper soil layer, mainly in the arable layer.
    Fiber flax is cultivated in areas of moderately warm and humid climate.
  2. Curly flax, or stag (v. brevimulticaulia). A low-growing (30-50 cm) plant with a strongly branching stem at the base and a large number of bolls (from 30-35 to 50-60 or more). Seeds are larger than those of the longweed. The weight of 1000 seeds is about 8 g. It is cultivated for oil production in the countries of Central Asia and Transcaucasia.
  3. Intermediate flax, or intermediate flax (v. intermedia). Plants of medium height (50-70 cm), 1-2 stems. Usually there are more bolls than those of the long-tailed bat (10-25). More often cultivated for oil, less often for oil and fiber, in the Central Black Earth zone (Kursk, Voronezh regions), in the Volga region (Samara region, Bashkortostan and Tatarstan), partly in Siberia, Ukraine, the North Caucasus, and Kazakhstan.
  4. Creeping flax (v. prostrata). Plants with numerous creeping stems before flowering. By the beginning of flowering, the stems rise and reach a height of 100 cm or more. It is cultivated as a winter crop in limited areas in Transcaucasia.

Forms of flax determine directions in cultivation: two-sided – for obtaining fiber and seeds (dolguntsy) and seed (curly). Mezheumki occupy an intermediate position, usually approaching curls. In Russia, over 85% of all flax crops fall on fiber flax, or spinning flax.

Technological properties of flax fiber

In the stems of fiber flax, 20-30% is accounted for by the fiber, which consists of fiber (88-90%), pectin (6-7%) and waxy (3%) substances, ash (1-2%). The proportion of fiber in the lower part of the stem is only 12%, and its quality is low (thick, rough, partially lignified). In the middle part of the stem, the proportion of fiber reaches 35% and is of higher quality (thin, strong and long, with the smallest cavities inside and thick walls). In the upper part of the stem, the amount of fiber decreases to 28-30%, the quality is somewhat worse (the fibers have a larger clearance and thinner walls).

Bast fibers are located in the parenchymal tissue of the stem cortex in the form of fibrous or bast bundles, which consist of many individual cells called elementary fibers.

Elementary fibrils are elongated cells with pointed ends 15–40 mm long and 20–30 µm thick on average. The fibers are firmly glued together with pectin into a fibrous bundle. Each bundle can contain 25-40 fibers. Fibrous bundles are arranged in a ring of 25-30 bundles along the periphery of the stem. The bundles, connecting with each other, form a tape of technical fiber.

The length of the bast bundles is determined by the total length of the stem and its technical length, that is, the length from the trace of cotyledon leaves to the beginning of branching (the first branch of the inflorescence). Tall stems are more than 70 cm long, have a greater technical length, contain longer elementary fibers and a longer technical fiber. Thin stems (1-1.5 mm) give a higher quality fiber, since their elementary fibers have thick walls and a relatively small internal cavity, which makes it possible to obtain strong and flexible fibers.

The quality of flax fiber is characterized by technological properties: strength, flexibility, fineness, gloss, elasticity, softness, cleanliness, quality factor and spinning ability. The overall fiber quality rating is determined by comparing the fiber with standard references. The higher the number of flax fiber, the less it is spent on the production of 1 m of fabric. High quality fiber should be long, thin-layered, without a large cavity, smooth and clean.

Biological features

Temperature requirements

Moderate temperatures in spring and summer with intermittent rain and clear weather are favorable for fiber flax. In the conditions of Russia, such conditions are most often observed in the forest zone. Its seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of (2) 3-5 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to (-3) -4 (-5) °С. However, at this temperature, damage to the cotyledons and yellowing of the seedling are observed.

Active germination of seeds and the emergence of seedlings are observed when the soil warms up at a depth of sowing seeds to 7-9 °C. The sum of effective temperatures for the period from sowing to germination is -60 °C, from germination to the beginning of flowering – 418-440 °C, from flowering to browning of the bolls – 410 °C (Schegolev). For the entire development cycle of flax, the sum of active temperatures is required from 1000 to 1300 °C.

The optimal temperature for plant growth is (15) 16-17 (18) °C. Hot weather leads to a delay in the growth of stems in height. At a temperature of 22 °C, growth inhibition is already noted, especially with insufficient moisture supply to the plants. Sharp diurnal temperature fluctuations also have a negative effect, especially during active growth (the budding phase).

Oil flax (mezheumok and especially curly) makes higher demands on heat than fiber flax, especially in the ripening phase. They are also more resistant to high temperatures and drought. For curly flax, warm sunny weather with a relatively dry summer (forest-steppe and steppe) is optimal.

Moisture requirements

Fiber flax makes very high demands on moisture. The maximum demand falls on the periods of budding and flowering.

The optimal soil moisture is 70% of lowest soil moisture capacity. At the same time, fiber flax needs moisture in different phases of development.

For swelling of seeds, about 100 (180)% of water is required from their mass. Friendly seedlings appear at an optimum soil moisture content of 10-20 mm in a 10 cm layer. Starting from the fir-tree phase to flowering, fiber flax’s need for moisture increases, while normal plant growth is possible with productive moisture reserves of 30 mm or more in a layer of 0-20 cm.

Flax does not tolerate excess moisture in the soil, as well as areas with a close occurrence of groundwater. Precipitation during maturation is also unfavorable, as this leads to lodging of plants and the development of diseases. During ripening, dry, moderately warm and sunny weather is considered favorable.

The transpiration coefficient of flax is 400-430 (450).

Oilseed flax (curly and mezheumok) is less demanding on moisture.

Soil requirements

More K.A. Timiryazev noted that on fertile soils, flax gives a thinner and more elastic fiber.

Due to the weak assimilation ability of the root system and a short period of intensive growth of stems, fiber flax is demanding on soil fertility.

In the Nonchernozem zone of Russia, well-cultivated, aerated, medium loamy soils and loamy sandy loams with a low degree of podzolization are considered the best. Optimal slightly acidic soil reaction (pH 5.9-6.3 (6.5)).

In fiber flax, up to 80% of the roots are located in the 0-20 cm layer, 14-18% – in the 21-50 cm layer, 3-6% – in the 51-100 cm layer. Therefore, more than 80% of the crop is formed due to moisture and nutrients of the soil horizon 0-20 cm.

Soils with a humus content of at least 2%, easily hydrolysable nitrogen – 10 mg/100 g of soil, potassium and phosphorus 10-15 mg/100 g of soil, and a bulk density of 1.3 g/cm3 are optimal. However, on very rich soils, plants often lie down, on the contrary, on very poor soils they are stunted. Flax can be grown on poor podzolic soils, but in order to obtain stable good yields of high quality (0.6-0.8 t/ha of fiber and 0.4-0.5 t/ha of seeds), it is necessary to choose good predecessors and follow fertilizer systems and plant protection.

Sandy loams and sands are unsuitable for growing fiber flax. Also, it does not work well on heavy clay, cold, swimming and acidic peaty soils. On limed soils, flax produces a brittle and coarse fibre. Does not tolerate weedy soils.

For oil flax, weed-free chernozems and chestnut soils are optimal. Mezheumok and curly are considered less demanding on fertility. Alkaline, as well as heavy clayey and marshy soils, are of little use for their cultivation.

Light requirements

Long-day flax is a long-day plant. In strong sunlight, increased branching of the stem occurs, which leads to a decrease in the yield of long fiber and a deterioration in its quality.

The most favorable diffused light.

Vegetation

Flax is characterized by the following phases of development:

  • seedlings;
  • the beginning of stalking (“herringbone”);
  • budding;
  • bloom;
  • ripening (sometimes subdivided into fruit formation, seed ripening, full ripeness).

Under favorable conditions, flax seedlings usually appear 5-6 days after sowing.

In the seedling phase, the flax plant has two cotyledon leaves with a small bud between them. In the herringbone phase, the plant reaches a height of 10 cm, while 5-7 pairs of true leaves are formed on the stem. These two phases (approximately 1 month after germination) are characterized by slow growth of the stem in height, but the rapid development of the root system.

Further, flax begins a period of intensive growth of plants in height (gains of 3-5 cm per day). This period lasts 12-20 days and ends with the onset of budding, at the onset of which plant growth slows down to 0.5-1 cm per day, and by the end of flowering almost stops. All agricultural practices aimed at inhibiting this process lead to stem lengthening and fiber quality improvement.

During maturation, the stems of plants are rapidly lignified and seeds are formed in boxes.

According to the Department of Crop Production of the Moscow Agricultural Academy, for the Svetoch variety, the period from sowing to germination is 6-7 days. The fir-tree phase occurs 26-28 days after sowing, budding – after 54-56 days, flowering – after 60-62 days. The growing season lasts an average of 82-84 days. For various varieties, the growing season ranges from 70 to 100 days.

Crop rotation

When using high and intensive agricultural technologies for the cultivation of fiber flax, the predecessors can be winter cereals, legumes, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, a layer or turnover of a layer of perennial grasses.

In Western Europe (Belgium, the Netherlands, etc.), clover is considered a poor predecessor of flax, because due to an excess of nitrogen, it lodges, and the straw turns out to be coarse and branching.

The frequent return of flax to its original place in the crop rotation leads to the accumulation of harmful microorganisms and specific weeds in the soil, which affects the yield. This phenomenon is called “flax fatigue”. They return it to its original place after 7-8 years.

Of great agrotechnical importance are intermediate crops of crops of the Cabbage family (rapeseed, Barbarea, oil radish, etc.), which are used as green manure or for green fodder. These crops are sown after harvesting early cereals.

Fiber flax is considered a good predecessor for winter and spring crops, buckwheat, beets and potatoes.

Falls, a layer of perennial grasses, winter grains, corn, legumes, melons and other row crops are considered good predecessors of oil flax.

Fertilizer system

Flax makes high demands on soil fertility. So, according to numerous data from VNIIL and other experimental institutions, when a complete mineral fertilizer is applied, the yield of fiber flax straw increases by 0.4-0.8 t/ha or 40%, seeds – up to 30%. In addition, the quality of flax fiber is improved.

Flax uses the nutrients of mineral fertilizers in different ways: easily hydrolysable nitrogen is absorbed by about 30-90%, phosphorus – by 10-25%, potassium – by 26-40%; from the soil, respectively: nitrogen – 20-30%, phosphorus – 6-13%, potassium – 12-13%. In conditions of a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil, it is recommended to take the upper gradation.

Nitrogen increases the content of long fiber in the crop. However, its excess lengthens the growing season of plants, leads to lodging of crops and increases the susceptibility to diseases, which ultimately significantly reduces the yield and quality of the fiber. Flax plants are especially sensitive to a lack of nitrogen in the herringbone phase, and the greatest need falls on the period of the herringbone – budding.

Phosphorus is very important from germination to the herringbone phase (5-6 pairs of true leaves). Sufficient phosphorus nutrition accelerates maturation, increases seed and fiber yield. When choosing forms of phosphate fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account their effect on increasing the acidity of the soil, to which flax is very sensitive.

Potassium contributes to an increase in the number of elementary fibers in the stem, increases the yield and quality of flax fiber, reduces the risk of plant lodging, and alleviates the negative effects of excess nitrogen fertilizers. The greatest need for potassium falls on the first 3 weeks of plant growth and in the budding phase.

The removal of nutrients from 1 ton of straw and seeds averages 10-14 kg of nitrogen, 4.5-7.5 kg of phosphorus, 11-17.5 kg of potassium.

On soddy-podzolic soils, the increase in straw yield is 5-7 kg per 1 kg of a.i. fertilizers.

When developing a flax fertilization system, it is necessary to take into account the weak ability of the root system to absorb nutrients from the soil and high sensitivity to high concentrations of soil solution, as well as a short growing season.

The introduction of 30-40 t/ha of manure under previous winter or tilled crops, together with phosphorite flour (400-600 kg/ha) and potassium chloride (150-200 kg/ha), contributes to an increase in yield by 25-30%. Lupins, seradella, vetch and rapeseed, which are grown in stubble crops, can be used as green manure. Manure and composts are not applied directly under flax, as this leads to lodging of crops.

According to the recommendations of All-Russian Research Institute of Flax, 30 kg of nitrogen (or 100 kg/ha of ammonium nitrate) are applied under flax, coming after spring cereals (barley, oats, spring wheat), with their planned grain yield of up to 2.5 t/ha. After cereals with a planned yield of 2.5 to 3.5 t/ha, it is recommended to apply 20-25 kg of nitrogen (or 60-70 kg of ammonium nitrate). With a planned grain yield of more than 3.5 t/ha – 15-17 kg of nitrogen (or 50 kg/ha of ammonium nitrate).

When placing flax after clover, with a hay yield of 3.04.0 t/ha under flax, it is recommended to apply no more than 15-17 kg of nitrogen, and with a hay yield of 4.5-5.0 t/ha, nitrogen under flax is not recommended. The application rate of nitrogen on drained peatlands is reduced, while that of phosphorus and potassium is increased.

The recommended ratio of nutrients in a complete mineral fertilizer for flax is NRK – 1:2:3 on soils poor in nitrogen, and 1:3:4 on soils rich in nitrogen, on poorly cultivated soils – 1:2:2, on medium cultivated soils – 1:3:3, on highly cultivated – 1:4-6:4-6.

In addition to ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate or complex fertilizers – nitrophoska, nitroammophoska and ammophos can be applied under flax. 100 kg of nitrophoska correspond to N12-15Р12-15K12-15, nitroammophoska – N16P16K16 (NPK ratio 1:1:1), ammophos – N11-12Р36-52. The application rate of complex fertilizers per 1 ha is determined by nitrogen, and superphosphate and potassium chloride are added to the missing amounts of phosphorus and potassium.

Under flax, in addition to simple superphosphate, double superphosphate (P34-45) and boron superphosphate containing 19-20% phosphorus and 0.2-0.3% boron can be used.

For the rational use of All-Russian Research Institute of Flax mineral fertilizers, it is recommended to apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under flax, taking into account their content in the soil and the planned yield of flax products (table). At the same time, the recommended fertilizer application rates must be adjusted taking into account zonal characteristics.

Table. Approximate norms for applying mineral fertilizers for flax (data from VNIIL, 1984)[1]Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and textbooks … Continue reading

THE CONTENT OF NUTRIENTS, MG PER 100 G OF SOIL
PROVISION OF FLAX WITH MOBILE PHOSPHORUS, NITROGEN, EXCHANGEABLE POTASSIUM
PLANNED YIELD OF FLAX FIBER 0.5-0.7 T/HA, SEEDS 400-500 KG/HA
PLANNED YIELD OF FLAX FIBER 0.8-1.0 T/HA, SEEDS 600-700 KG/HA
mobile phosphorus (P2O5)
exchangeable potassium (K2O)
N
P2O5
K2O
N
P2O5
K2O
3
5
Very low
30
90
120
Not planned
Not planned
Not planned
3-9
5-10
Low
25
80
100
Not planned
Not planned
Not planned
10-15
11-15
Medium
20
70
90
20
90
120
16-20
16-20
Increased
15
60
60
15
90
90
21-30
21-30
High
10
45
45
10
60
60
30
30
Very high
0
30
30
0
45
45

On strongly acidic soils with a pH of less than 5.0, it is better to replace superphosphate with a mixture consisting of three parts of phosphate rock and one part of superphosphate, and on medium acid soils (pH 5.5) – a mixture of equal parts of phosphate rock and superphosphate.

Part of the entire rate of phosphate fertilizers is applied when sowing in rows in the form of granulated superphosphate at the rate of 50 kg/ha for commercial crops and 20 kg/ha for seed crops.

From potash fertilizers for flax, potassium chloride (56-60% K2O), potassium sulfate (48% K2O), potassium salt (30-40% K) can be applied. On sandy soils with magnesium deficiency, it is advisable to apply potassium magnesia (K2O 28-30% and MgO 8-10%).

To correct the developed zonal average fertilizer application rates for flax, All-Russian Institute of Fertilizers and Agrosoil Science is recommended to use correction factors taking into account the planned yield and nutrient content in the soil.

Nitrogen fertilizers for flax are applied in the spring, potash and phosphorus fertilizers – in the fall, before the autumn tillage or immediately after it. On soils with a low content of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, as well as on heavy cohesive soils, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are recommended to be applied in two steps: half in autumn, before autumn tillage, and the second half in early spring, before spring tillage.

The main mineral fertilizer is applied randomly using special fertilizer seeders with ПТХ-4.2А plate-type sowing machines. Granular superphosphate is applied when sowing in rows with combined seeders СЗЛ-3.6.

A good effect is given by fertilizing during the growing season of plants. Ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate can be used for top dressing. The consumption rate is N20-30, superphosphate – P30-40, potassium chloride – K30 or complex fertilizers. Top dressing begins to be carried out at a plant height of 6-8 cm or 20 days after germination. A delay in nitrogen fertilization can lead to stretching of flowering time and uneven ripening. Often top dressing is done only with phosphate fertilizers.

Of the microfertilizers, flax needs boron the most. Boron-datolite or boron-magnesium fertilizer is applied in the spring before cultivation at the rate of 20-30 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, 40-70 kg/ha of boron, Kolomeichenko). In addition to these fertilizers, with a lack of boron in the soil, boron superphosphate can be used in rows when sown in an amount of 50 kg/ha. Boron reduces the negative effect of lime on flax plants, reduces damage to plants by bacterial diseases. Boric fertilizers are recommended to be applied on calcareous, podzolic and waterlogged soils, as well as in the development of new lands.

Copper microfertilizers should be used when growing flax on peatlands at the rate of 25 kg/ha of copper sulfate or 250-500 kg/ha of pyrite cinders.

Soddy-podzolic soils of the flax growing zone, characterized by high acidity, are subjected to liming . The experiments of All-Russian Research Institute of Flax showed that with the direct application of lime under flax in small quantities, the yield of flax fiber increases, but its quality deteriorates noticeably. The joint introduction of lime and boron somewhat eliminated the negative effect of lime. For this reason, liming of acidic soils in flax crop rotations is carried out under a cover crop of red clover or in a fallow field. The following lime application rates are recommended for:

  • pH 4.5 and below – 2.5-3 t/ha;
  • pH 4.6-5.0 – 2-2.5 t/ha;
  • pH 5.0-5.5 – 2 t/ra.

Lime is applied using mineral fertilizer spreaders 1РМГ-4, РУМ-8. Errors in the application of mineral fertilizers are not allowed, deviations from the specified application rate should be no more than 10%.

A good effect is given by the addition of mineral fertilizers to the addition of wood ash under flax from 100 kg of ash for every 100 kg of fiber.

Manure or peat-dung compost is usually not applied directly under flax, as this can lead to lodging of plants, variegation and weediness of crops. However, under the conditions of intensification of flax growing, the role of organic fertilizers in flax crop rotation increases. According to studies, it is optimal to apply manure and composts in flax crop rotation in two fields – under potatoes or other tilled crops and under winter or spring crops with oversowing of perennial grasses. At the same time, mineral fertilizers should be applied under crops annually.

According to All-Russian Research Institute of Flax, in order to ensure high yields of all crops included in the flax crop rotation, it is necessary to annually apply at least 10-13 t/ha of organic fertilizers and 1 t/ha of standard mineral fertilizers on cultivated soddy-podzolic soil.

The introduction of organic (20 t/ha manure) and mineral (N30P45K40) fertilizers for oilseed flax significantly increases the yield. In this case, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied under autumn plowing, and nitrogen fertilizers are applied under pre-sowing cultivation. When sowing, it is also recommended to add superphosphate or nitrophoska to the rows at the rate of P15-20, which increases the yield of oilseeds by 0.3 t/ha.

Tillage system

Basic tillage

Due to the underdeveloped root system and the small depth of its penetration into the soil, flax is sensitive to tillage, which largely depends on the predecessor. For varieties of flax (fiber, mezheumok, curly), the tillage system, as a rule, does not differ.

When placing flax after perennial grasses, soil cultivation begins with disking the layer in two directions using heavy disc harrows БДН-3, БДТ-10, БДТ-3.0. Disking is performed 2-3 weeks before autumn processing. Plowing is carried out with plows with skimmers to a depth of 22-25 cm, and in the case of a shallow arable layer – to its entire depth.

The optimal plowing time for the central and western regions of the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia is the end of August – the first half of September, in Western Siberia – August, Belarus – September, the Baltic countries – the end of September – the first half of October, in Ukraine – September. At the same time, good tillage in early spring should be ensured.

When placing flax after grain crops, after their harvesting, the soil is peeled to a depth of 4-6 cm with disk cultivators ЛДГ-5А, ЛДГ-10А, ЛДГ-15А or plowshares ППЛ-5-25, ППЛ-10-25. When infested with couch grass (Elytrigia repens), the depth of peeling should be at least 10-12 cm. The crumbled seeds and knots of couch grass rhizomes quickly germinate and, during subsequent autumn plowing, are deeply embedded in the soil and die. With a strong clogging of wheatgrass, it is advisable to use soil-acting herbicides.

When flax is placed after potatoes, if plowing was carried out after its harvesting, additional plowing is usually not carried out.

On weedy crop rotation landsthey often leave a repair fallow field or carry out autumn tillage according to the semi-fallow type. With semi-fallow tillage, plowing and several cultivations are carried out in autumn to control weeds. Peeling is carried out immediately after harvesting the predecessor to provoke the germination of weeds, which are then plowed. If the fields are clogged with annual weeds, a cultivator of the ЛДГ-10 type is used to a depth of 6-8 cm, when clogged with root weeds, ППЛ-10-25 plow-ploughs are used, with a large distribution of creeping wheatgrass, heavy disc harrows БДТ-3.0 or БДТ- 7.0 in two tracks. In dry autumn weather, it is advisable to aggregate the plow with a ring-spur roller, and in wet weather – with a heavy harrow. Before the start of frost, it is desirable to perform 2-3 cultivations to a depth of 10-14 cm diagonally to the direction of plowing. For cultivation, КПС-4 cultivators with spring paws in combination with harrows are usually used. They try to perform the last cultivation 2 weeks before the onset of frost to a depth of 8-10 cm; at the same time, the same cultivators with lancet paws and without harrows are used.

Pre-sowing tillage

In spring, plowing on sandy and light loamy soils is harrowed, on heavy loamy and moist soils it is cultivated. Pre-sowing treatment of sandy loamy soils is carried out with heavy tooth harrows, light and medium loams – needle-shaped (БИГ-3А) and spring (БП-8), heavy loams and clay soils – cultivators to a depth of 5-7 cm.

Early spring processing of loamy and clayey soils, in case of placing flax after grain crops, is carried out by cultivators with lancet paws to a depth of 5-6 cm with simultaneous harrowing with heavy or medium tooth harrows. When incorporating mineral fertilizers, the cultivation depth on these soils is increased to 10-12 cm.

Early spring processing after a layer of perennial grasses raised in the fall (provided there is no couch grass), in order not to turn the turf to the surface, use disc cultivators ЛДГ-10, ЛДГ-5 or disc harrows БД-10, БДН-3.0 (Vavilov; according to others data, they are treated with cultivators with lancet paws, Kolomeichenko).

Presowing tillage, which is reduced to cultivation with simultaneous harrowing, is carried out one week after early spring tillage. Such treatment promotes more complete germination of weeds , which are then destroyed by tillage implements before sowing flax.

Before sowing, if necessary, the soil surface is leveled, for which light toothed harrows ЗБП-0.6А, plume-harrows ШБ-2.5, etc. are used, or leveling bars are used.

Poorly moistened and light-textured soils are rolled using smooth water-filled (ЗКВГ-1.4) or ringed rollers (ЗККШ-6А). On heavily moistened and heavy soils, it is recommended to carry out leveling with trailing harrows.

When carrying out pre-sowing tillage for flax, combined units are more effective: ripper-leveler – roller РВК-3.6 and leveler-chopper-packer ВИП-5.6, which allow high-quality soil preparation for sowing in one pass.

On well-prepared soils, field germination of flax reaches 70-80%.

Sowing

Seed preparation

Requirements for flax seeds are: purity – not less than 97%, germination – not less than 85%. Seeds should be full-bodied, leveled, shiny, oily to the touch. For fiber flax, contamination with seeds of camelina (Camelina), toriza (Spergula), and chaff (Lolium) is especially dangerous. The admixture of weed seeds in flax seeds should not exceed 180 pieces/kg. Seed material infested with quarantine weeds (for example, dodder (Cuscuta)) is not allowed to be used.

To combat anthracnose, fusarium, rust and other diseases, seeds before sowing or in advance (for (2) 5-6 months) are treated with chemicals using a semi-dry method at the rate of 0.5-1 l of water per 100 kg of seeds. At the same time, the moisture content of the seeds increases by only 0.4-0.5%. For dressing seeds with moisture, fentiuram, fentiuram-molybdate (300 g/100 kg seeds) are used in the form of wettable powders with various adhesive additives. It is also recommended to use preparations: tigam (300 g/100 kg of ​​seeds), 80% TMTD (300 g/100 kg of ​​seeds), granosan with dye (150 g/100 kg of ​​seeds). As adhesives, film-forming substances, for example, sulphite-alcohol stillage or acidic water, can serve. For 100 kg of seeds, take 1 kg of acidic water, 1 liter of ordinary water and a disinfectant according to the norm.

For pickling, special machines such as ПСШ-5, ПС-10А are used.

Before dressing to increase germination energy and field germination, flax seeds 10-15 days before sowing are subjected to air-heat treatment for 4-5 (7) days in open areas or 8-10 days in well-ventilated areas. To do this, they are scattered in a thin layer of 5-6 cm on tarpaulin panels or on clean, dry concrete sites. The seeds are stirred several times a day.

A good result is obtained by seed treatment with microfertilizers (boric acid, copper sulfate, ammonium molybdate, zinc sulfate, etc.).

Sowing dates

Sowing of flax is carried out in an early and short time (within 4-5 days). Sowing begins with the onset of soil ripeness and its heating at a depth of 10 cm to 7-8 ºC. Early sowing helps to increase the yield and quality of the fiber, while reducing the susceptibility of plants to fungal diseases and pests.

Delaying sowing by a week can reduce the yield of fiber and seeds by 10-20%.

According to the data of the Moscow Agricultural Academy Experimental Station for Flax Growing, the yield of trust at early sowing (May 13) of flax was 20% higher than with late sowing (June 9), and the quality of the fiber improved by five numbers. The damage of early crops by flax flea was 2.3%, while that of late crops was 3.46% (Vavilov; according to other sources, 34.6%, Kolomeichenko).

Flax germinated at low temperatures is more resistant to spring frosts. However, too early sowing in cold, wet and poorly prepared soil leads to a decrease in the yield of flax to the same extent as late sowing.

The sowing of oil flax is carried out simultaneously with the sowing of early spring crops.

Seeding methods

The best way to sow flax is narrow-row with a row spacing of 7.5 cm.

For sowing, flax narrow-row seeders СЗЛ-3.6, as well as СЛН-48А, СУЛ-48, aggregated with tractors of the 1.4 kN class are used. For uniform sowing of seeds, seeders are additionally equipped with ring trains.

To obtain flax seeds, wide-row (45 cm) or tape methods (45 × 7.5 × 7.5 cm) of sowing are usually used. For accelerated reproduction of new varieties and in dry conditions, the wide-row method is more effective, while the seeding rate is reduced by 2 times.

For sowing oilseed flax, ordinary grain seeders are used. The sowing method is narrow-row or ordinary ordinary.

Seeding rates

The generalized sowing rate of flax seeds is 20-25 million pieces or 100-120 kg per 1 ha.

Optimal seeding rates largely depend on the variety, for example, for a variety:

  • L-1120 – 25-30 million/ha of germinating seeds;
  • Svetoch – 27-29 million/ha;
  • K-6 – 24-25 million/ha;
  • Pskovskiy 359 – 21-22 million/ha;
  • Tvertsa – 20-23 million/ha;
  • Shokinsky – 25-30 million/ha.

In addition, the seeding rate is determined taking into account zonal conditions, the purpose of sowing.

In wet years, with increased seeding rates, lodging of plants is likely, which makes harvesting and primary processing of flax difficult. Thickened crops are not recommended to be done on poor soils, where flax turns out to be stunted. The seeding rate is increased by 10-15% on heavily weedy fields, as well as on heavy, floating soils, on which a smaller number of plants remain by the time of harvesting.

When growing flax for seeds, the seeding rate is reduced.

The seeding rate for oil flax seeds is 40-60 kg/ha.

With the bilateral appointment of flax-mezheumka (for fiber and seeds), the seeding rate is increased by 10-15 kg.

Seeding depth

The optimal sowing depth of flax seeds on heavy soils is 1.5-2.0 cm, on light soils – 2.0-2.5 cm.

Increasing the sowing depth significantly reduces the seedling density and flax yield. So, in the experiments of Moscow Agricultural Academy and Izhevsk Agricultural Institute at a seed sowing depth of 5-6 cm, the field germination of flax decreased to 42-50%.

The optimal sowing depth of flax seeds for bilateral use is 4-5 cm.

Stubble and joint crops

With the combine method, harvesting with spreading straw on flax, under flax, meadow fescue (16-18 kg/ha) or perennial ryegrass (20-25 kg/ha) can be sown.

White grass clover can be sown simultaneously with flax seeds. To do this, they are thoroughly mixed before sowing.

Seeding quality control

During the first passes of the unit, the sowing depth, the width of the butt row spacing, the seeding rate are checked in accordance with the requirements for the production of mechanized work in field crops.

The number of seeds consumed during the operation of the seeder at the control length of the passage of the unit at a given seeding rate (Q) is calculated by the formula:

Q = LBH/104,

where L is the length of the rut, m; B is the width of the seeder, m; H is the seeding rate, kg/ha.

Crop care

Care of crops of commercial fiber flax consists in:

  • post-sowing rolling;
  • harrowing (during the formation of a crust);
  • weed and pest control.

The listed agrotechnical measures are carried out taking into account specific conditions.

Harrowing to destroy the soil crust is carried out with light sowing, rotary or mesh harrows, as well as ring-spur rollers.

In addition to agrotechnical measures, the most important methods of caring for crops include the use of chemical means to control weeds, pests and diseases of flax. The damage they cause to fiber flax can reach 30% or more in some years.

According to All-Russian Research Institute of Flax data, in the presence of more than 200 dioecious weeds per 1 m 2 of crops, it leads to a decrease in yield even when fertilizers are applied.

To combat annual dicotyledonous weeds (white gauze (Chenopodium album), field yaruka (Thlaspi arvense), zebra pickle (Galeopsis speciosa), field tori (Spergula arvensis), wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), etc.), spraying with herbicides such as 2M-4X, 2M-4X 80%, which are applied in the amount of 0.6-1.2 kg. The consumption of the working solution when spraying with ОН-400 boom sprayers or others is 200-300 l, with the help of aircraft – 150-200 l/ha.

The optimal phase of development of flax crops for herbicide treatment is plant height from 5 to 8 (15) cm (herringbone phase). During this period, the leaves are located on the stems at an acute angle (10-30°) and are often covered with a wax coating, thus significantly reducing the negative effect of the herbicide on cultivated plants in comparison with the treatment at a later date.

The greatest effect of spraying crops is achieved in clear and dry weather at an air temperature of 15-17 °C. Cool weather (12 °C) slows down the penetration of the herbicide solution into weeds, while dry and hot weather increases, but at the same time causes flax to stick.

According to All-Russian Research Institute of Flax, the use of herbicide 2M-4X (0.75 kg/ha) in a mixture with ammonium nitrate (9 kg/ha) or urea (13 kg/ha) promotes good growth of flax and more complete cleansing of crops from weeds. the use of herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer , compared with treatment with one herbicide, increases the yield of flax seeds by 13-14% and fiber – by 12.8-27.7%.

According to the Department of Crop Production of the Moscow Agricultural Academy, the effect of spraying crops with herbicide 2M-4X (0.5 kg/ha) in a mixture with ammonium nitrate (12 kg/ha) is enhanced if microfertilizers are added to the mixture (boron 0.25 kg/ha, zinc and molybdenum at 0.1 kg/ha). At the same time, the fiber yield increases by 0.15-0.2 t/ha, seeds – by 0.13-0.15 t/ha. Such a joint action of the herbicide, ammonium nitrate and microfertilizers is associated with an increase in plant photosynthesis. In addition, the infection of flax with bacteriosis, fusarium, rust and other diseases is noticeably reduced.

Particular attention in flax-sowing farms should be given to the fight against creeping wheatgrass (Elytrigia repens), which in heavily infested areas can reduce the yield of flax fiber by 20-25% or more. Sodium trichloroacetate (TCA) is used to control this weed. The drug is applied no later than the first half of September, as wheatgrass “shilets” appear after peeling the soil from under grain crops or disking a layer of perennial grasses. The application rate of sodium trichloroacetate on sandy loamy soils is 20 kg/ha a.i. (or 23 kg/ha 90% of the preparation), on loamy soils – 30 kg/ha a.i. (or 34.5 kg/ha of 90% preparation). The same doses are used after autumn treatment.

According to the results of VNIIL experiments, the application of 30 kg/ha of sodium trichloroacetate before plowing leads to the death of 78.1% of the rhizomes of couch grass, and the increase in fiber yield reaches 13.6%, seeds – 10.8%.

Another notorious flax weed is flax chaff (Lolium remotum). Against it, the herbicide 40% triallat is used, which is applied 1-3 days before sowing or on the day of sowing before leveling the soil surface with harrows at the rate of 1.5-2.5 kg per 1 ha. Triallat reduces the infestation of flax seeds by chaff by 90-96%.

Care of flax crops should include the protection of plants from pests, especially the ubiquitous flax flea. Against the flea, 1-2 days before the emergence of seedlings, marginal and blockade treatments of crops with insecticides are carried out to a width of 3-4 passes of the unit. For processing, the preparation phosphamide Bi-58 is used in the amount of 0.8 kg/ha. For these, 80% chlorophos (0.8 kg/ha) can also be used.

When the number of flax fleas is more than 10 individuals per 1 m 2 in dry and hot weather, or more than 20 individuals per 1 m 2 in wet weather, the treatment is performed using boom sprayers. Fluid consumption 200-300 l/ha.

To control thrips, crops are dusted with 12% HCH dust (15-25 kg/ha) after the herringbone phase.

Harvest

The ripeness phase of fiber flax is divided into four phases:

  • green;
  • early yellow (early);
  • yellow;
  • complete.

Green ripeness (flax-green) comes after flowering. During this period, the stems and boxes are still green, only the leaves in the lower third of the plant begin to dry out and turn yellow. When the seeds are crushed, a milky liquid is released from them. Harvesting flax in the green ripeness phase produces a thin and shiny, but weak fiber. Such fiber can be used in the production of thin products (cambric, lace).

In the phase of early yellow ripeness, the leaves of the lower half of the plant stem fall off, the rest, with the exception of the apical ones, turn yellow. The boxes have green veins. Seeds in pods acquire a green-yellow color and a yellow spout (wax ripeness). Harvesting flax in this phase produces the best quality fiber: soft, silky and strong.

In the phase of yellow ripeness, all leaves turn yellow, remain only at the top of the stem, the bolls become brown, the seeds become light brown. Usually occurs 5-7 days after the early ripeness phase. The quality of the fiber in the phase of yellow ripeness begins to decline. The fiber of the lower part of the stem becomes coarse.

In the phase of full ripeness, all the leaves fall off, the stems and boxes become brown. The fiber collected in this phase is of poor quality: dry, hard, inelastic.

For timely harvesting of flax it is possible to use desiccation. This technique allows you to dry the plants on the vine and refuse field drying and ripening of plants in sheaves. Desiccation is carried out in the phase of early ripeness.

The harvesting of fiber flax by harvesters usually begins 2-3 days after the onset of the phase of early yellow ripeness (Karpets, 1984). Linen harvested during this period produces the greatest amount of high quality long fiber. Seeds by this moment are sufficiently formed and after ripening can be used for sowing (technical ripeness of flax).

Harvesting of flax in the phase of yellow ripeness is carried out upon receipt of seeds of breeding varieties of fiber flax in seed farms. In the phase of full ripeness, oil flax is harvested.

The period of technical ripeness of fiber flax is 8-10 days, but in hot weather it can be reduced. Therefore, the delay in pulling leads to significant yield losses: on average, for each day, the loss of fiber is 2-3%, seeds – 1.5%.

According to the data of the Moscow Agricultural Academy Experimental Station for Flax Growing, harvesting flax at the end of the yellow ripeness phase led to a decrease in the yield of long fiber by an average of 14.2% over 5 years compared to harvesting in the early yellow ripeness phase, and harvesting in the full ripeness phase by 21. 9%.

Flax harvesting is considered the most difficult and time-consuming work in flax growing – it accounts for 70-80% of all costs. Therefore, the use of efficient flax harvesting technologies is of great industrial and economic importance.

The traditional sheaf harvesting method, including pulling, field drying of sheaves in pasterns, threshing on threshing machines and manual spreading in the meadow, does not meet the objectives of the development of flax growing. A more advanced and efficient way of harvesting flax is the well-developed and proven for many years combine harvesting method.

The combine harvesting method allows you to perform several operations: pulling, stripping seed pods, loading a heap of vehicles, knitting flax straw into sheaves using a knitting machine for subsequent delivery to a flax mill (ЛКВ-4А combine) or spreading it on a flax in the form of a tape to obtain trust (harvester ЛК-4А).

Compared with the sheaf method, the combine method reduces the time for harvesting flax by 3-4 weeks, and labor costs – when spreading straw on a flax bed by 1.5-1.7 times or when putting straw in sheaves by 3-4 times. The efficiency of the combine harvesting method increases when several combines are used.

According to All-Russian Research Institute of Flax, the preparation of flax straw on a flax bed is almost comparable to the process of its maturation on meadow beds. Conditions on the flax can be improved by overseeding flax with perennial grasses ( meadow fescue , perennial ryegrass, white clover, etc.). The quality of trusts in this case increases by 1-2 numbers.

When harvesting flax with the help of ЛК-4А combines, the spreading of straw on the bed is carried out simultaneously with harvesting in the optimal agrotechnical terms – 20-30 days earlier than with the sheaf method.

In the process of straw maturation, approximately every 8-10 days it must be turned over with the help of mounted turners ОСН-1 for uniform maturation and prevention of overgrowing of straw with grass. The trust begins to rise when its moisture content is not more than 20%.

The lifting of linen stock with its tying into sheaves is carried out by a mounted pick-up ПТН-1. The use of a pick-up allows you to reduce labor costs compared to the manual method by 6 times.

With a combine harvesting method, a raw heap is obtained, which consists of 52-84% of boxes, 2-7% of seeds, 12-16% of mud and other impurities. The humidity of the heap is usually high – 60-65%, seed pods 40-50%. In order to prevent damage to seeds in boxes, a heap is evenly loaded into the drying sections with a layer of 1.1 m in floor dryers or 0.7 m in conveyor dryers and is immediately dried to a moisture content of 16-18% on the surface, for which installations are used, for example, ОСВ-60 with air heater ВГ1Т-400 or ВПТ-600. The temperature of the heated air should not exceed 45 °C. After 20-45 hours of drying, cold air is blown for 1.5-5 hours to reduce seed damage during heap processing. The following requirements are imposed on the process of drying and processing: loss of seed germination should be no more than 2%, crushing – less than 1%, irretrievable losses during processing should be no more than 3%. The threshing of the heap is carried out on a threshing fan МВ-2.5А. Seed moisture before threshing should be 10±2%.

In the culture of fiber flax, it is of great importance to bring the seeds obtained during harvesting to sowing conditions. To do this, farms carry out their cleaning on grain cleaning wind screen machines СМ-4, СОМ-300 and electromagnetic machine СМЩ-04. At flax seed stations, production lines from a complex of machines and equipment for processing and preparing seeds for sowing are used for this.

Compliance with the technology of drying seeds intended for sowing is important, since the loss of germination occurs due to the death of the embryo under the action of a heating temperature above the maximum allowable. The sensitivity of the embryo to high temperatures increases with increasing seed moisture. For shaft-type dryers, the optimal drying modes are determined (table).

Table. Recommended modes of drying flax seeds[2]Crop production/P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and textbooks for … Continue reading

SEED MOISTURE CONTENT BEFORE DRYING, %
LIMIT TEMPERATURE, °C
coolant
seed heating
13-15
65-70
42-45
15-17
60-65
38-40
17-19
55-60
35-38
over 19
50-55
32-35

Flax straw can remain on the farm for primary processing or be immediately delivered to harvesting stations and flax mills. For delivery to flax mills, straw must comply with the established requirements (GOST). The sheaves must be round or oval in shape with a diameter of at least 13 cm. The moisture content of the straw (to an absolutely dry mass) must be 19%, straw with a moisture content of more than 25% is not accepted by flax mills. Permissible weediness – 5%, with more than 10% weediness, straw is also not accepted.

The quality of flax straw is determined by the length (handful), strength, bast content, suitability, color, stem diameter. Depending on these properties, it may have the following numbers: 5.00; 4.50; 4.00; 3.50; 3.00; 2.50; 2.00; 1.75; 1.50; 1.25; 1.00; 0.75; 0.50. The quality of delivered straw is assessed in daylight by comparing the selected samples with seasonal standard samples.

Primary processing of flax

In order to reduce losses and obtain the greatest amount of high-quality fiber from straw, it is divided into 2-3 grades according to length, thickness, color and other qualities. Plants affected by diseases are isolated in a separate fraction.

The main operations of primary processing of flax include:

  • preparation of trust straw by spreading or rinsing;
  • drying trusts;
  • wrinkle;
  • fluttering.

At present, 75-80% of the trusts are prepared on farms by spreading straw on the beds. The industrial technology of fiber flax cultivation provides for the sale of 50-70% of flax products to flax mills in the form of flax straw. Flax straw, when spreading, turns into trust under the action of an aerobic fungus – Cladosporium herbarum Zin. (aerobic straw lobe). The trust is best aged when spreading in August, when the weather is warm (18 °C) and humid with heavy dews. The duration of maturation under such conditions this month is 3-4 weeks, in later periods of spreading it increases to 5-7 weeks. By the end of the maturation, the stems of the trusts become gray. At this time, to determine the end of aging, sampling is carried out – “torture” (handfuls from different places, at least 2 kg). The samples are dried, processed on a pulper and ruffled.

2-2.5 tons of flax straw are spread on 1 hectare. Trusts from such straw are obtained by 20-25% less (slate trust).

After aging, the trust is placed in cones to dry. In case of rainy weather, drying is carried out in special dryers and rigs.

The best way to obtain trusts is considered to be a water soak of straw in special soaks, and especially in warm water (thermal soak).

Thermal urine is carried out in installations consisting of several soaking pools, devices for heating water and other equipment. The decomposition of pectin substances in the water lobe occurs under the action of anaerobic bacteria Bacillus felsineus Carbone, Granuiobacter pectinivorum Bejerinc et Van. and others (anaerobic lobe of flax straw).

Wetting basins are loaded with sheaves of straw in a vertical position and immediately filled with water at a temperature of 36-38 °C. After 9 hours, part of the urination liquid is drained, fresh warm water is added instead. 6 hours later, a slow flow of warm water is established through all pools until the lobe is completed. The duration of the heat lobe is 3-5 days. Upon completion, the trust is washed with water, squeezed on presses and dried.

Dew or water lobe, as well as chemical treatment in alkaline solutions, can also be used to isolate the fiber.

To isolate pure fiber from trust, it is necessary to remove the fire, that is, the wood of the stems. This operation is carried out with the help of special roller mills. After that, raw fiber is obtained, which is subjected to additional separation from the remains of the fire on scutching machines.

After drying, the trust (slate and monets) is subjected to crushing on МЛКУ-6А pulpers, from which fiber is obtained. The fiber is subjected to processing – scutching – on flax scutching machines ТЛ-40А. On average, flax fiber contains 25% of the total fiber, long – no more than 18-20%. Part of the fiber goes to waste, from which, with the help of tow-making machines КЛ-25А, a short “tow” fiber is obtained. Usually, all these machines are part of one scutching and scutching unit, the daily output of which is 600-800 kg of fiber.

When handed over to flax mills, the trust must be gathered into sheaves of hand or machine knitting. The sheaves should be uniform in length and degree of maturation or soaking, and the stems in the sheaves should be placed with butts in one direction. The moisture content of the straw should be no more than 20%, weediness – no more than 5%, fiber content – no less than 11%, sheaves diameter – no less than 17 cm.

Linen weed (soaked straw), depending on the fiber content, strength, handful length, suitability, color, separability and diameter of the stems, is divided into numbers: 4.00; 3.50; 3.00; 2.50; 2.00; 1.75; 1.50; 1.25; 1.00; 0.75; 0.50. In accordance with the technical specifications (GOST), an OOV device should be used to determine the fiber separability, to determine the fiber content – ПК-2, sheaf length – ДЛ-3.

Linen fiber, upon delivery to procurement points, should be tied into waders of 3-4 kg with a flax length of up to 70 cm. At a distance of 1/3 from the top, each wader is tied twice with a belt made from the same fiber. Rated humidity of torn flax to absolutely dry mass should be 12%. Upon acceptance, an organoleptic analysis of ragged flax is carried out by comparing it with standard seasonal samples. Worn flax, depending on the quality, is usually divided into numbers: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32. Linen the fiber should be clean from the fire, strong, long, thin, soft, greasy to the touch, heavy and uniform in color (light silver, white). The yield of pure fiber is usually about 15% by weight of straw or 20% by weight of straw.

Industrial technology of fiber flax cultivation

All-Russian Research Institute of Flax, together with the Ukrainian Research Institute of Agriculture and the Belarusian Research Institute of Agriculture, developed an industrial technology for the cultivation of fiber flax, which was introduced on more than a quarter of all commercial crops. The technology is designed to produce at least 550-800 kg/ha of flax fiber and 500 kg/ha of seeds, in addition to reducing labor costs by more than 2 times.

Industrial technology includes:

  • concentration of crops in fiber flax farm in 2-3 crop rotations;
  • placement of flax after cereal crops;
  • introduction of scientifically based norms of mineral and organic fertilizers in
  • the crop rotation;
  • basic tillage according to the semi-fallow type;
  • improved pre-sowing tillage;
  • sowing at the optimal time with seeds of class I and II with a seeding rate of 18-22 million/ha of viable seeds;
  • application of an integrated system of measures to combat diseases, pests and weeds;
  • pre-harvest desiccation;
  • mechanized cleaning;
  • implementation of at least 50% of the crop in the form of straw according to the “field-factory” scheme. At the same time, as the experience of All-Russian Research Institute of Flax has shown, the roll cleaning technology deserves attention.

Organizational measures are based on the contract, the creation of harvesting and transport complexes for harvesting flax in the optimal time and reducing the loss of flax products.

Technological operations are recommended to be performed by machines for:

  • dressing seeds ПСШ-5, ПС-10А, ОПШ-15;
  • fertilizer application – ПОУ, РТТ-4.2А, 1-РМГ-4, ЛДГ-10А, ЛГД-15А, БД Т-3, ПЛН-8-40, ПЛН-4-35, ПЛН-3-35, КПС-4-03, ЗКВГ-1,4, РВК-3,6;
  • sowing – СЗЛ-3,6;
  • cleaning – ЛК-4А. ЛКВ-4А, ПТН-1, ОСН-1, ПНП-3, ПСП-3, ВПТ-600, ТЛН-1.5А, Т-25А, МТЗ-80, ТАУ-1,5, МВ-2.5А, МЛ-2.8П, trailer 2ПТС-4М.

Thus, intensive technology, using intensification factors, and, despite the significant costs of fixed assets in the development of technology, allows the most rational use of resources and obtaining flax products with greater efficiency.

For example, in the collective farm “Bolshevik” of the Torzhok district, according to the industrial technology of flax in 1983, 9.2 centners per hectare were obtained from a total area of ​​330 hectares with labor costs for obtaining 100 kg: seeds – 12.2 man-hours; straw – 2.5 man-hours; trusts – 5.3 man-hours

Features of agricultural technology of oil flax

Oilseed flax is placed in a crop rotation after fertilized winter crops, perennial grasses, legumes, corn, potatoes and other crops.

Autumn processing is carried out as early as possible, before which it is recommended to peel the soil. The main tasks of spring processing include the preservation of moisture in the soil and weed control.

When fertilizing oilseed flax, phosphorus and potash fertilizers (30–45 kg/ha of phosphorus and potassium) are applied for autumn tillage, and nitrogen fertilizers (25–30 kg/ha of nitrogen) for presowing cultivation. According to All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds data, the introduction of granular superphosphate into the rows during sowing gives a good result. Seed yield increases by 2.9 kg/ha.

Sowing of oil flax is carried out simultaneously with early spring crops. The sowing method is the usual ordinary or narrow-row. On weedy soils, wide-row sowing is used with row spacing of 45 cm. The seeding rate is from 30 (on wide-row) to 80 kg/ha. With double-sided use of flax (for seeds and fiber), the seeding rate is increased by 10-15 kg. Sowing depth 4-5 cm.

Oil flax is harvested for seeds in the phase of full ripeness. Cleaning is carried out by grain combines. With two-sided use of the crop – in the phase of yellow ripeness with a cut height of 10 cm and a reduced number of drum revolutions per minute to 800-1200. If flax straw is spread on a flax field, the bottom of the stacker is removed from the combines. If the straw is spread elsewhere, the harvester collects the straw into piles and then it is transported to the meadows and spread over the surface with a layer of no more than 15 cm. In damp and warm weather, flax stalks can mature for 10-12 days.

The separation of fiber from the trust is carried out with the help of mills and shakers (construction tow). To isolate the spinning fiber, a tow-making machine КЛ-25А is used.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.