Arable farming is a branch of agronomy that studies general methods of cultivation of agricultural plants, develops methods of the most rational use of agricultural land and increase soil fertility in order to obtain high, sustainable yields, provide the population with food, livestock – fodder, some industries – raw materials. The main task of arable farming is to study the requirements of plants and develop methods of meeting these requirements by regulating the factors of plant life, creating optimal conditions for growth and growth of cultivated plants.
Arable farming is the science of rational, technologically, ecologically and economically sound use, restoration and improvement of soil fertility as the basis for high crop yields. Arable farming as a science develops on the achievements of fundamental disciplines: soil science, plant physiology, physics, chemistry, microbiology, agrochemistry, horticulture, land management, land reclamation, ecology, economics, etc.
In the broad socio-economic sense, arable farming is understood as highly productive, sustainable, environmentally sound and economically efficient production of high-quality crop production under rational use of land and reproduction of soil fertility.
For the last decades in Russia the main methodological principles of realization of the potential productivity of plants have been formulated, which include the development of zonal farming systems, adapted to the conditions of natural-economic zones, cropping patterns and crop rotations, the system of soil cultivation, the introduction of doses of organic, mineral fertilizers, microfertilizers and lime, the introduction of intensive cultivars, effective protection of crops from weeds, diseases and pests, timely and quality field work. Development and implementation of a set of agronomic practices in relation to a particular high level of yields is the basis of scientific farming.