Home » Arable farming » Special methods of main tillage

Special methods of main tillage

Special methods of main tillage include tiering (multilayer) plowing, plantage plowing, mole cutting, slitting, and other methods.

Two-tier (two-layer) plowing

Two-tier (two-layer) plowing is a method of main tillage to a depth of 35-40 cm with turning the upper part of the arable layer and simultaneous loosening of the lower part or moving the upper and lower layers vertically. Two-tier plowing allows loosening the upper part of the arable layer with overturning the lower one. It provides deep embedding of seeds and vegetative organs of weeds reproduction, turf, plant residues, slowing down their decomposition. Deep embedding of weed seeds, pest larvae and fungus spores reduces crop infestation by 60-70%.

Two-tier plowing is used for cultivation of sod-podzolic soils, plowing of alfalfa layer, for pre-sowing soil preparation for sugar beet and other technical crops. Two- and three-tier ploughs ПД-3-35, ПНЯ-4-40, ПНЯ-6-40 and ploughs with notched bodies are used for it.

Three-tier (three-layer) plowing

Three-tier (three-layer) plowing is a method of main tillage to the depth of 40-50 cm with full or partial displacement of three layers (horizons). At three-tier plowing arable layer after overturning remains on the surface, and illuvial and podzolic horizons change their places.

It is carried out by three-tier mounted ploughs ПТН-3-40, ПТН-3-40А, ПНЯ-4-40, ПНЯ-6-40 and others. Hulls on such ploughs are set in three tiers for layer-by-layer processing, due to which the soil of the lower horizons is involved in the arable layer.

Three-tier ploughing ensures good loosening and crumbling of the soil while dividing the layer into two parts. In addition, it allows deep embedding of plant residues and weed seeds, which reduces the weediness of crops by 2-3 times, and also improves the activity of soil biological processes and water regime.

It is used for main tillage for technical crops and for cultivation of sod-podzol soils and solonetz soils.

Plantage plowing

Plantage plowing is a method of main tillage performed by special ploughs to a depth of more than 40 cm. It is carried out during cultivation of saline, sandy soils, under fruit plantations and forest plantations. Plantage plowing provides loosening of the soil to a greater depth, thereby improving the physical properties, cultivation of deep layers and deep penetration of the roots.

If necessary, the plantation plough allows for layered cultivation, for which purpose it is equipped with a skimmer, a cut-out ploughshare, a soil deepener or two plantation bodies at different levels.

At the same time, deep embedding of fertile humus layer, especially on soils with low natural fertility, leads to lower yields, which is due to incomplete overturning of the layer and extraction of the lower layers of soil with worse properties to the surface. Therefore, high doses of organic and mineral fertilizers, lime or gypsum are applied during plantation plowing.

Double plowing of sandy and sandy loam soils at different depths allows creating a layered profile due to layers of turf, peat mixed with manure. Layered profile reduces water permeability of soil, increases moisture capacity and efficiency of mineral fertilizers.

Plantation plowing is carried out by special plows: ППН-40, ППН-50, ППУ-50А.

Slitting

Slitting is a method of deep cutting the soil with the help of slitters ShN-2-140, ShN-3-70. Slitting allows to increase water permeability, contributes to water accumulation and improves aeration.

It is an effective method of fighting water erosion on slopes by reducing water runoff and soil washing out. When the unit is moving across the slope, the crevice cutters are 3-5 cm wide and 40-60 cm deep with the distance between them equal to 70-140 cm and the distance between the crevices is up to 2 m on gentle slopes. Specially equipped devices fill the slots with loose soil containing stubble, and at the same time water-holding rollers are formed above the slots, which allows keeping the slots until spring.

Slitting in crops of winter crops, perennial grasses and pastures, carried out in late autumn on soil frozen to a depth of 5-7 cm prevents plants from soaking and increases yields. Slitting can be carried out simultaneously with plowing by retrofitted ploughs, deep loosening ploughs or other implements.

Mole-cutting

Mole-cutting is an agro-reclamation technique, which consists in creation of drainage-moles in subsoil layers at the depth of 35-40 cm with diameter of 6-8 cm at the distance of 0.7-1.4 m from each other.

Mole-drenches serve for drainage of water on overwatered soils, contribute to better aeration of soil, on sloping lands prevent water runoff and soil washing out. Mole cutting is carried out simultaneously with plowing by special mole-diggers installed on a plough body or by rippers-mole cutters. Mole-cutting is effective on heavy overwatered soils with close groundwater occurrence and on lands drained by drainage.

Sources

Farming. Textbook for universities / G.I. Bazdyrev, V.G. Loshakov, A.I. Puponin et al. – Moscow: Publishing House “Kolos”, 2000. – 551 с.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Farming and crop production. Edited by V.S. Niklyaev. – Moscow: Bylina, 2000. – 555 с.