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Farming in the Central Black Earth zone

The Central Black Earth zone of Russia is the most important agro-economic region of Russia, with great potential for agricultural production. It includes Voronezh, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Kursk, and Tambov regions. According to the state registration data the land stock of the zone is 16,8 mln ha, of which 13,2 mln ha, or 80%, of agricultural lands. Agricultural land includes:

  • arable land – 10.8 million hectares (81.4%),
  • hayfields – 0.6 million hectares (4.5%),
  • pastures – 1.7 million hectares (12.6%).

Forests and bushes occupy 1.7 million hectares (10.1%). Soils are predominantly black earth (chernozem). The Central Black Earth zone is located in the forest-steppe (83,3%) and steppe (16,7%) natural-climatic zones, and is divided into approximately two equal parts by the Don River. The entire territory can be divided into 12 soil-climatic subzones.

Natural and climatic conditions

The main features of farming in the arid steppe and forest-steppe regions are the lack of moisture and the risk of wind and water erosion of soils. In general, the natural and economic conditions of the Central Black Earth zone are favorable for farming.

Climate

Climate is temperate and mid-continental with increasing continentality from north-west to south-east, especially in Zavolzhskaya steppe. Average annual air temperature is 5 … 6,4 °С, sum of active temperatures above 10 °С in the north-west is 2300-2400 °С, in the south – 2800-3000 °С. The frost-free period lasts 150-155 days in the forest-steppe and 160-165 days in the steppe.

The annual amount of precipitation in the forest-steppe is 500-550 mm, in the steppe 450-490 mm. The zone is characterized by insufficient and unstable moisture, especially during the growing season. Of the total number of years of observations 25-30% were dry. Droughts are often accompanied by dry winds, the frequency of which increases from north-west to south-east: the number of dry windy days in forest-steppe is 12-15, in steppe – 20-40. Dry winds of weak and average strength occur, as a rule, annually throughout the territory. The hydrothermal coefficient is 0.9-1.2.

Aridity of climate is aggravated by the development of erosion caused by meltwater and stormwater runoff. For example, spring meltwater runoff averages 70-80 mm per year in the north-west forest-steppe part of the zone, 50-60 mm in the central part, and 30-40 mm in the southeast of the steppe part.

Soils

Soils of the Central Black Earth zone are represented by black earth (chernozem), forest, sod-podzolic, meadow-black earth and other types.

To the east of the Voronezh and Don rivers are typical thick black earth soils with humus content up to 9-9.5%. In the southern part of the forest-steppe – ordinary black soils with humus content of 7-8.5%. In the south of Voronezh region common low-powered and southern black earths with humus content of 5-5.5% are spread.

In the north-west and north of the zone forest (gray), sod-podzolic, meadow-black earth soils and podzolic black earth prevail. In steppe – black earths, chestnut soils in combination with solonetz soils.

In general, the soil cover of the Central Black Earth zone is characterized by a high potential of biological productivity. V.V. Dokuchaev called the Russian chernozem “the tsar of soils”. Nevertheless, the study of the qualitative condition of agricultural lands shows the need to preserve, improve and increase fertility.

Relief

The formation of the relief of the Central Black Earth zone is historically associated with the development of the Don River basin. The western right-bank part represents the Sredne-Russkoe Upland. Height of watersheds is up to 286 m above sea level. The length of gully networks is 1.1-1.3 km per 100 ha.

The left-bank part is divided into elevated (southeastern) and plain (northeastern) parts. The south-eastern left-bank is represented by the Kalachskaya upland, which is heavily dissected by troughs of ancient runoff, ravines and river valleys. The elevation level is 200-300 m above the sea level, length of the gully network is 1,2-1,5 km per 100 hectares. The north-eastern left-bank is the Oka-Don lowland with absolute altitudes of 120-150 m above sea level.

According to the land records in the Central Black Earth zone there is arable land: on slopes with a steepness of 1-3° – 35.6%, 3-5° – 13.9%; more than 5° – 7%; on average for the zone – 55%. Such hilly relief on the background of significant amount of snow (solid) precipitation up to 140-170 mm and melt water, as well as heavy rainfall creates erosion hazardous situation. The largest share of arable land, placed on slopes, is noted in Belgorod region – more than 50%, Lipetsk region – up to 40%, Voronezh region – more than 30% and Tambov region – about 30% of areas. Washout, depending on conditions, is from 5 to 50 t/ha.

Vegetation

The vegetation of the Central Black Earth zone is represented by natural and cultural formations. The territory is characterized by high development, the land used in agricultural production, accounts for about 80% of the total area, afforestation – 10-12%; natural hayfields and pastures are preserved in small amounts in the floodplains of the Don and Voronezh rivers.

Forest cover in steppe areas is insignificant. Grass vegetation is mainly represented by crops of cultivated plants.

Agricultural production is dominated by cereals, including winter crops, row crops (corn for silage and grain, sugar beet, sunflower, potato). Perennial grasses, despite these anti-erosion efficiency, account for only 3-5%.

The main tasks of the farming system

The main tasks of the farming system are:

  • moisture accumulation and drought control, ensuring high and stable annual crop yields;
  • preservation and improvement of soil fertility;
  • preventing water and wind erosion;
  • optimization of crop acreage structure with consideration of natural and economic peculiarities of the zone;
  • preservation of natural landscapes;
  • ensuring ecological protection of the environment;
  • building a rational system of fertilizers, which provides for the use of phosphorus fertilizers in the first place.

All elements of the farming system should be aimed at the accumulation and rational use of soil moisture.

Grain production is the leading branch of agriculture in the Central Black Earth zone. The main cereal crops are winter wheat, winter rye, oats, barley; leguminous crops are peas, vetch; groats are millet and buckwheat; technical crops are sugar beets and sunflowers.The Central Black Earth Region is the main producer of sugar beet in Russia.

Corn crops for silage, green fodder, grain, perennial and annual grasses, and root crops account for 25-30% of the sown area.

Crop rotations system

The following crop rotations are recommended for the Central Black Earth zone: 1 – bare and seeded fallow, peas, 2 – winter cereal crops, 3 – row crops, 4 – spring cereal crops.

It is important to place winter cereal crops on good predecessors, the best of which is bare fallow.

It is possible to expand the area of cereal crops over 60% with high cropping culture by introducing pea crops, in the southern regions of Voronezh and Belgorod regions – pea and corn for grain. In areas where the cultivation of corn for grain is impossible, cereal crops are introduced to expand the sowing of cereals. Expansion of pea and corn crops requires additional measures to control weeds and pests.

In the system of rotations flat land is mainly allocated for row crops, if necessary with a bare fallow, sloping – under soil-protective high proportion of perennial grasses and crops of continuous seeding. On sandy, floodplain and irrigated lands introduce crop rotations, taking into account their fertility.

Systems of crop rotations are determined by specialization and soil and climatic conditions of farming. At enterprises of grain direction cereal-fallow, cereal-row and cereal-fallow-row crop rotations are introduced. At farms of grain and livestock specialization also add crop rotations with perennial and annual grasses. It is economically feasible to allocate near-farm on-farm crop rotations and areas for the production of green and succulent fodder.

The crop rotations of grain and beet farms can be 4-5-field with the saturation of cereals to 60%, sugar beet – to 20-25%, fodder cultures – to 15-20%: 1 – black and seeded fallow, peas, 2 – winter crops, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – spring cereals, 5 – corn for grain, corn for silage.

Sunflower farms may have 7-8-field crop rotations with the total area of industrial crops up to 20-25%, half of which are beets, the other half – sunflowers: 1 – bare or seeded fallow, 2 – winter cereals, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – spring cereals, 5 – peas, 6 – winter cereals, 7 – sunflower, 8 – spring cereals.

Crop rotations with dairy-grain-vegetable specialization of the farm can be eight-, nine- or ten-field, with a share of industrial crops in the structure of sown areas of about 20%. In the forest-steppe zone, most of it is sugar beet, in the steppe – sunflower:

  • for the forest-steppe part of the Central Black Earth zone:
    • 1 – bare and seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 2 – sugar beet, 4 – barley, 5 – peas, 6 – winter wheat and rye, 7 – corn for silage, 8 – barley, 9 – sunflower, 10 – barley, oats;
    • 1 – seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley with lucerne sprouting, 5-6 – lucerne, 7 – corn.
  • For the steppe part: 1 – bare fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, corn for grain, 4 – barley, oats, 5 – peas, 6 – winter wheat, rye, 7 – corn for silage, millet, 8 – barley, 9 – sunflower.

In these crop rotations 3-4-field crop rotations with bare and seeded fallow, peas, corn for silage may be considered as independent crop rotations.

In the north-west districts with sufficient moisture and on irrigated lands, two fields of sugar beet may be introduced: 1 – bare and seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet, 4 – barley, 5 – peas, 6 – winter wheat, 7 – sugar beet, 8 – barley, 9 – corn for silage, 10 – sunflower. Mother beet (for seed production) is placed on winter wheat in the first section of crop rotation, while beet-planting is in the second section of crop rotation.

Perennial grasses (clover, Hungarian sainfoin) are usually introduced into crop rotation after barley and used as an seeded fallow for one harvest for winter crops. If alfalfa has a good productivity it is advisable to use it for 3-4 years. To do this it is cultivated in a withdrawable field according to the scheme (by Sidorov M.I.): 1 – bare and seeded fallow, 2 – winter wheat, 3 – sugar beet + cereals, 4 – peas, 5 – winter wheat, 6 – barley, 7 – corn for silage, 8 – barley, oats, 9 – sunflower + groats, 10 – lucerne (non-rotation field). One year before plowing alfalfa is sown in the sixth field under barley.

Soil-protective crop rotations are used on sloping lands with steepness more than 3°. In order to prevent soil runoff and washout, they are saturated with crops with high projective soil-protective coverage in the most erosion-dangerous periods of the year. Such crops include, first of all, perennial grasses and solid winter crops. The steeper the slope, the greater the saturation with perennial grasses should be. Strongly eroded slopes are set aside for grassing.

The following schemes of soil-protective crop rotations are recommended:

  • 1 – annual grasses with undersowing of perennial grasses, 2-4 – perennial grasses, 5 – winter rye, 6 – barley;
  • 1 – barley with undersowing of perennial grasses; 2-3 – perennial grasses; 4 – winter wheat; 5 – millet.

Forage (on-farm) crop rotations with small areas and a short rotation are used at livestock breeding farms. Approximate schemes of fodder crop rotations (M.I. Sidorov):

  • 1 – corn for green fodder + sainfoin, 2 – sainfoin for one mowing + corn for green fodder, 3 – fodder melons, 4 – annual grasses, 5 – winter crops for green fodder + corn for green fodder, 6 – fodder beets;
  • 1 – annual grasses for green fodder, 2 – winter rye for green fodder + corn, 3 – fodder beet, 4 – corn for green fodder, 5 – fodder melons, 6 – lucerne (non-rotation field).

If forage crop rotations are saturated with alfalfa and winter cereals, they can also perform a soil-protecting function.

Tillage system

Under conditions of frequent recurring droughts, the risk of water and wind erosion, as well as soil and climatic conditions and requirements of crops, the system of tillage in the Central Black Earth zone should solve the following problems:

  • maximum accumulation and preservation of moisture, weakening the negative impact of recurrent droughts;
  • prevention of water and wind erosion;
  • preservation of humus and mineral nutrients;
  • ensuring control of weeds, pathogens and pests;
  • creation of optimal conditions for the development of crops and obtaining high and sustainable yields.

In developing the system of cultivation take into account: the type of soil, the degree of exposure to erosion, amount and regime of precipitation, degree of aridity, requirements of cultivated crops, crop rotation, weediness, and predecessors.

In arid and erosion-prone areas, especially on light soils and slopes, preference is given to conservation tillage.

Plowing is effective in regions with sufficient moisture: under cereals and legumes – 20-22 cm, under row crops – 25-27 cm. Under winter cereals, especially in years with a lack of moisture in the fall, surface tillage with disc and flat-cut implements is carried out. 

Tillage system for winter crops includes the cultivation of bare fallows, seeded fallows, and non-fallow predecessors. Immediately after harvesting the forecrop, discing or flat-cutting to a depth of 8-10 cm to save and accumulate moisture and provoke the germination of weeds. On fields not at risk of water erosion, where organic fertilizers are applied, plowing to a depth of at least 20-22 cm is carried out. On soils exposed to water erosion in the medium and strong degree, especially on slopes with a southern exposure, the tillage by non-moldboard tools or plowing across the slope and horizontally, as well as slotting is carried out.

In late autumn to protect against water erosion and the accumulation of moisture it is carried out trenching, furrowing, etc.

On fields with highly compacted soils to prevent surface runoff of melt water and the accumulation of moisture used late autumn ripping or slitting with special deep rippers, chisels and slitters. These techniques are carried out when evaporation of water from the soil surface becomes minimal or stops completely.

In winter, snow retention is carried out by snowplows or sledge-compactors. Before snowmelt, work is carried out to regulate the flow of melt water, such as banding across the slope or horizontally compacting and blackening the snow.

In spring-summer period all field works are carried out taking into account moisture conservation. To provoke weeds germination and their destruction, early spring harrowing, cultivation, and sowing coulters are carried out.

To prevent erosion on a slope, it is better to place perennial grasses in strips in fallow or to strip sowing of sunflowers in June-July, or corn in 1-2 rows across slope with 25-40 cm distance between them.

Overgrazing of fallow should be excluded. Presowing cultivation is carried out to the depth of seed sowing. To decompact the soil and prevent erosion processes in the fields of winter cereal crops across the slope immediately after sowing, slitting at a depth of 40-45 cm is carried out.

Seeded fallows are widely used in the Central Black Earth zone, especially in the forest-steppe. Winter rye for green fodder, vetch-oat mixture for green fodder and hay, peas and pea-oat mixture for green fodder, corn for green fodder, sainfoin for one harvest, early potatoes are used as fallow crops.

In wet years, after fallow-occupied crops, which free the field 1.5-2 months before sowing winter crops, fertilize and perform the plowing of 16-18 cm or discing with simultaneous harrowing. Further, as the heavy rains fall, carry out harrowing, weed control, pre-sowing tillage with flat-cut working tools to a depth of 6-8 cm.

In dry years the plowing is replaced by surface cultivation with БДТ-7 or БДТ-10 tools with harrowing, presowing cultivation with flat-cut working tools at the depth of 6-8 cm.

After fallow-occupied crops, which release the field for 2.5 months, plowing, fertilizing, and further processing – harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation with flat-cut working tools at 6-8 cm.

Tillage system for winter crops

When cultivating winter cereals after perennial and annual grasses, green conveyor crops and on the fields, released a month or earlier from the predecessors, according to the VNII of Agriculture and Soil Protection from Erosion, it is advisable to till the soil 12-16 cm with subsequent slitting immediately after sowing until the seeds germinate. The main tillage on such fields should be completed no later than June 15.

Cultivation of winter crops after corn for silage and leguminous crops on the fields not weeded by rhizomatous and root-shoot weeds is reasonable for surface tillage with disc and flat-cut tools immediately after harvesting the preceding crop, surface loosening and bringing the seed layer of soil to the optimal fine lumbly state with full readiness for sowing winter crops. The first shallow loosening is carried out by disc-tillers type ЛДГ-5, ЛДГ-10, heavy disc-tillers БДТ or needle БИГ-3А harrows in not less than 2 tracks. The second processing is carried out with heavy disk-tillers, flat-cut cultivators, ploughshare hoes, КПГ-2,2, КПШ-5, КПШ-9, anti-erosion cultivators КПЭ-3,8, polydisc-tillers. Tillage depth for the second treatment – no more than 10-12 cm. The implements are aggregated with harrows. In conditions of dry autumn additional pre-sowing rolling of the soil is carried out.

It is optimal to use combined aggregates consisting of flat-cutter КПП-2,2, harrow БИГ-3 and a section of the roller ЗКК-6А or special machines РВК-3,6, АКП-2,5.

If there is enough time before sowing of winter crops and if weeds or soil crust appears, additional cultivation to the depth of not more than 8-10 cm is carried out. Before sowing, pre-sowing cultivation is carried out to the depth of seed embedding.

If less than one month remains from harvesting to sowing of winter crops, the system of surface treatment is used regardless of the predecessor. The main tillage for winter crops should be completed by August 1.

Tillage system for spring crops

Spring cereals and other crops are sown after non-fallow predecessors, i.e. on ploughed soil. Up to 90-96% of all arable land is annually devoted to plowing.

The main factor limiting the yield of spring crops is the lack of moisture. Therefore, the task of autumn tillage is the maximum accumulation and preservation of moisture in the soil and the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers, clearing the fields of weeds.

Methods of tillage system for spring crops in autumn-winter and spring periods up to sowing should be water-saving and soil-protective.

The new arable land which is not exposed to water erosion is usually cultivated under winter conditions including stubble dicking at the depth of 6-8 cm immediately after harvesting and then in 15-20 days at the depth defined by the requirements of a cultivated crop.

On fields weeded with root-shoot weeds and the most important industrial crops, such as sugar beet, potato, sunflower, autumn tillage includes stubble discing to a depth of 6-8 cm after harvesting cereals, shallow tillage with polydisc-tillers to 12-14 cm with simultaneous harrowing in 15-20 days and plowing in 15-20 days after the second discing.

After perennial grasses, corn, leguminous crops and groats also plowing with preliminary discing is carried out. Pre-plowing discing is carried out immediately after harvesting in at least two tracks on 10-12 cm.

After harvesting sugar beets, the soil is loosened to a depth of 30-35 cm. If there are few haulm leaves on the field, and the soil is loose enough, the plowing is replaced by tillage with flat-cut-tillers or chisel cultivators to a depth of 20-25 cm.

On sloping lands, light and sandy loamy soils subjected to erosion, no tillage is used. Research Institute of Agriculture and Soil Protection from Erosion recommended for the cultivation of spring cereal crops and annual grasses on stubble predecessors and clean of weeds fields to carry out basic tillage flat-cut-tiller with subsequent slitting. Immediately after the release of the field from the forecrop perform surface loosening at 6-8 cm needle harrows such as БИГ-3 in two tracks. In 1.5-2 weeks, if weeds grow massively, the fields are treated with herbicide. On the 10th-12th day after herbicide treatment shall be carried out the surface treatment by flat-cut cultivators, for example, КПП-2-2, КПШ-5, КПШ-9 at the depth of 12-14 cm. After another 1.5-2 weeks after the first tillage loosen the soil with flat-cut-tillers at the depth of 20-22 cm. Layer-by-layer loosening promotes the formation of a fine lumbly structure, eliminates weeds, contributes to the accumulation and preservation of moisture.

Tillage system for row crops

Improved or layer-by-layer under-winter tillage has a high efficiency in the system of tillage for row crops, which consists of:

stubble discing by disc implements to a depth of 6-8 cm in 2-3 trails immediately after harvesting the forecrop;
stubble discing with polydisc-tillers with simultaneous harrowing or cultivation with flat-cut cultivators to the depth of 12-14 cm 2-3 weeks after the first stubble discing;
plowing to a depth depending on the culture with the introduction of 30-40 tons/ha of manure and mineral fertilizers in 2-3 weeks after the second discing;
leveling the surface with cultivators КПЭ-3,8, КПС-4, КПГ-4 simultaneously with harrowing.

In recent years, a widespread half-fallow tillage, which is used on soils not prone to erosion. The main tillage in this case is carried out in August – early September. Spring pre-sowing tillage consists of early spring harrowing, cultivation, leveling, rolling of soil.

In a dry spring and the lack of moisture, especially for sowing of small-seeded crops, the pre-sowing rolling of the autumn furrow is carried out with ring-spiked rollers.

In the fields where late crops are sown, carry out 2-3 pre-sowing cultivations. The first cultivation with harrowing is carried out to a depth of 10-12 cm simultaneously or after cultivation for early spring crops as weeds grow, and the second – to the depth of sowing seeds just before sowing late crops, when soil temperature is 10-12 °C. In some years with increased moisture, soil density and weed infestation, the third cultivation is resorted to. The last pre-sowing cultivation is carried out just before sowing strictly to the specified depth, without a gap in time.

Fertilizer system

Compensation of nutrition elements in the fertilizer system at low, average and high soil sufficiency of mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be respectively:

  • at low – 70-90, 160-200, 80-100%;
  • medium – 90-110, 200-220, 100-120%;
  • at high – 50-70, 100-120, 60-80%.

With limited stocks of mineral fertilizers missing their number of nutrients for the planned yield is replenished by organic fertilizers. To prevent a decrease in humus reserves, create a positive balance of organic matter and increase the fertility of the Central Black Earth zone, it is necessary to systematically increase the production and use of organic fertilizers.

In some districts peat in the form of peat composts, sapropel are used as organic fertilizers.

Liming of acidic soils in the north-west and north of the Central Black Earth zone necessarily precedes the introduction of fertilizers. Doses of lime are determined by the value of hydrolytic acidity. As a rule, lime is used when the hydrolytic acidity of more than 1.8 mg-eq/100 g soil and the degree of saturation of the bases of more than 93%. Simplified, the dose of lime per 1 hectare in tons is numerically equal to 1.5 of the value of hydrolytic acidity in mg-eq/100g soil. The actual dose of lime materials is determined taking into account the content of calcium carbonate, moisture and ballast impurities.

In the crop rotation liming is planned on the fields going for sowing sugar beets, winter wheat, clover, Hungarian sainfoin. Lime is applied before stubble discking, mineral fertilizers – before the autumn plowing. The repeated liming is carried out in 5-7 years.

Organic fertilizer in the first place is made in rotations, saturated with clean fallow, sugar beet and other row crops. With the share of row crops and bare fallow to 40-50% of the total arable area, the dose of organic fertilizer is at least 10-12 t/ha, with 20-40% – at least 7-8 t/ha. At saturation of crop rotations with perennial grasses up to 20-30% dose of organic fertilizers – up to 5 t/ha.

Organic fertilizers at a dose of 30-50 t/ha made in the field of black fallow, sugar beet, corn, potatoes and vegetable crops.

Mineral fertilizers are used for sugar beet, winter wheat, corn, potatoes and vegetable crops, perennial grasses. Not less than 2/3 of the total application rate is applied in autumn under plowing. For other crops, they are applied locally in the rows and as a top dressing.

The most effective integrated application of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers in crop rotations. The use of significant doses of only mineral fertilizers leads to a deterioration of the physical and chemical properties of the soil.

Water regulation and erosion protection system

Measures to regulate the water regime include:

  • soil and water conservation organization of the land area with the introduction of special soil-protective crop rotations,
  • grassing of heavily eroded areas,
  • application of strip and contour farming on the territory with a complex relief,
  • anti-erosion tillage,
  • water-saving technology of crops cultivation,
  • field-protective and soil-protective afforestation,
  • hydro technical facilities on melt water and rain water flow regulation,
  • irrigation,
  • fertilizer use.

Soil and water conservation organization of land area provides for optimal ratio of main agricultural lands. It is based on systems of soil-protective field, fodder crop rotations and meadow pasture-rotations, system of forest reclamation measures and hydraulic engineering constructions, rational placement of production facilities, road network.

On slopes of 1-2 ° plowing, seeding and inter-row cultivation is carried out across the slope, on slopes of 2-3 ° – plowing across the slope, as well as once every 3-4 years – soil deepening at 30-32 cm. Plowing of furrow is carried out with hollowing, and sowing and tillage of inter-row crops is carried out across the slope. On winter crops – slitting. Non-shaft plowing at different depths and combined tillage are used on erosion-prone and eroded slopes of 3-5°.

Slitting, diking of ploughed fields, creation of micro-irregularities and water-draining furrows are effective. For pre-sowing tillage and sowing – spring slitting with the help of slit-cutting machines ЩН-2-140 and cultivation across the slope.

Forest-reclamation measures are an important component of the anti-erosion complex in the Central Black Earth zone. According to their purpose, forest protective plantations are divided into:

  • field-protective (windbreak),
  • water-regulating,
  • near-wash (arroyo),
  • near-gully,
  • wash (arroyo) and gully,
  • massive (plantations),
  • landscaping,
  • special planting of forest crops near water reservoirs at the dumps of mineral deposits.

Protective forest plantations are placed taking into account the relief, degree of soil erosion, crop rotation and field works.

Water protective forest plantations are created along the banks of water bodies to protect them from destruction and to preserve the waters of local runoff. Around the ponds, protective forest strips of 10-20 m in width are created, they are placed above the level of high water, and in case of steep banks – above the edge of gullies.
To regulate surface runoff, forest belts are combined with simple hydraulic engineering structures, for example, water-retaining and water-regulating shafts, ditches, concrete watercourses, and water-draining and water-dissipating devices. Earthen, fascines, concrete and other structures are used to fix gullies.

Organization of the territory of the enterprise, if possible, should be contour, contour-lane or contour-meliorative.

Crop protection system

Cereal crops in the Central Black Earth zone are damaged by the pest turtle, bread beetle, fleas, aphids, thrips, diaphids and other pests. The most common diseases include smut, rust, root rot, and powdery mildew.

Sugar beet is attacked by wireworms, false wireworms, weevils, beet weevils, fleas and aphids. As for diseases, it is mostly caused by root beetle and capsicum.

Main pests of sunflower include wireworms, false wireworms, caterpillars of various noctuid moths and meadow moths. Diseases of sunflowers include white rot, gray rot, and false powdery mildew (peronosporosis).

Vegetable crops are susceptible to cruciferous fleas, gama moths, cabbage and turnip whiteflies, and cabbage moths. Of the diseases – phytophthorosis, macrosporosis, black bacterial stain, mosaic, various rots, etc.

The plant protection system provides for:

  • observance of correct, scientifically grounded alternation of crops in the crop rotation;
  • application of effective methods of main, pre-sowing, inter-row and post-harvest tillage;
  • observance of the technology of crops cultivation;
  • use of exterminating biological and chemical means of plant protection;
  • high quality of seed material sterile from weed seeds, pathogens of diseases and pests;
  • carrying out preventive measures.

Complex application of plant protection measures ensures maximum effect.

Sources

Farming. Textbook for universities / G.I. Bazdyrev, V.G. Loshakov, A.I. Puponin et al. – Moscow: Publishing House “Kolos”, 2000. – 551 с.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Farming and crop production. Edited by V.S. Niklyaev. – Moscow: Bylina, 2000. – 555 с.