Home » Horticulture (Page 2)

Category Archives: Horticulture

Peppermint

Peppermint is an essential oil and medicinal crop.

Economic importance

Mint is grown to produce leaves that contain (1.5) 2.0-3.5% essential oil. Peppermint essential oil is used in medicine, perfumery and confectionery.

Essential oil promotes the expansion of blood vessels of the heart, lungs and brain, is used as a wound healing, choleretic, analgesic and sedative. A mixture of menthol and oil has anti-inflammatory properties and is used for colds.

The main component of the essential oil is menthol, the content of which reaches 50-70%.

Cultivation areas and yield

Peppermint was introduced into cultivation about 250-300 years ago.

In Russia, mint was brought from England and began to be cultivated in the 19th century.

It is grown as a cultivated plant in small areas in Western Europe, Asia (China, Korea, Japan) and the USA.

The main crop areas on the territory of the former USSR are located in the Krasnodar Territory and North Ossetia of Russia, the forest-steppe part of Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and the Baltic countries.

In 1984, the sown area in the USSR was about 9 thousand hectares.

The yield of dried peppermint leaves reaches 0.8-1.0 t/ha (Vavilov). According to other data, the average yield is 1.5-2.0 t/ha, in favorable conditions it reaches 3.5 t/ha.

Botanical description

Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a perennial rhizomatous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family.

The rhizome lies in the soil at a depth of 5-6 cm.

Stems erect, branched.

Plant height 50-80 cm.

The leaves are opposite, small, oval-lanceolate, serrated along the edges. On the underside of the plastic sheet, along the veins, there are numerous glands in which essential oil is formed.

The flowers are mostly female, small, pinkish, collected in groups in loose spike-shaped inflorescences. Flowering occurs profusely, but seeds are almost not formed.

Biological features

Peppermint is undemanding to heat.

Able to overwinter well with little snow cover without shelter.

The buds on the rhizomes begin to grow at a soil temperature of 2-3 °C. Young shoots of mint are able to tolerate frosts down to -6 °C. It does not tolerate sharp fluctuations in temperature from the end of winter to early spring, which is associated with the beginning of the germination of rhizomes.

Moisture-loving plant. The optimal soil moisture, at which the above-ground mass develops most intensively, is 80% of the lowest soil moisture capacity. Does not tolerate prolonged drought.

Peppermint is demanding on light: when shaded, the oil content in the leaves decreases.

The best soils are low-lying fertile sandy loamy or light loamy chernozems and drained cultivated peatlands. It grows poorly on heavy, alkaline, sandy and acidic marsh soils.

Vegetation and reproduction

Reproduction is vegetative by means of rhizomes and shoots.

Seedlings are harvested from young shoots, which are formed from overwintered lashes and rhizomes in spring. For these purposes, segments of rhizomes with 3-4 knots are better suited than parts of lashes. Planting material harvested in autumn is usually stored in special piles. The pile is a dug trench 1 m wide and 50-60 cm deep. The rhizomes in the pile are laid in layers of 5 cm and sprinkled with soil. From above they fall asleep with a layer of soil 20-30 cm thick. The optimum storage temperature in piles and storages is +1 … +3 °С.

Sometimes the rhizomes are not dug up, and the field of mother plants of mint is covered with straw manure or other insulating materials.

Crop rotation

In the crop rotation, fertilized tilled crops (potatoes, sugar beet), as well as winter crops, going along fertilized fallows and along the turnover of the layer of perennial grasses, are considered the best predecessors of mint.

With good care, peppermint can be grown in one place for 2-3 years.

Fertilizer system

Peppermint is responsive to organic and mineral fertilizers.

The recommended application rate for manure is 15-20 t/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, 30-50 t/ha of manure or compost, Kolomeichenko), directly under mint.

Recommended application rates for mineral fertilizers N90P60K90. (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, when combined with organic fertilizers – N45P45K45, in the absence of organic fertilizers – N60-90P60-90K60-90, Kolomeichenko).

Manure and part of the mineral fertilizers are applied as the main fertilizer in the fall, the rest of the mineral fertilizers are applied before cultivation, when planting rhizomes and as top dressing.

Peppermint responds well to ammonium nitrate, ash and bird droppings.

Recommended fertilizer application rates for feeding seedlings: 100 kg of ammonium sulfate, 150 kg of superphosphate, 50 kg of potassium salt or 5 tons of diluted slurry, 200-300 kg of chicken manure per 1 ha. The first top dressing is carried out immediately after the start of the seedling vegetation, the second – after 20-25 days.

After harvesting the leaves, mineral fertilizers are applied in the amount of N90P120K90 with embedding them with harrows.

Tillage system

An important agricultural technique is considered to be snow retention, which is carried out with the help of rocker crops.

Planting

Peppermint is planted with rhizomes in early spring, simultaneously with the sowing of early spring crops. In the conditions of Moldova and the Krasnodar Territory with relatively mild winters and high soil moisture in autumn, planting of rhizomes can be carried out in autumn – at the end of October – the first half of November.

The best planting method is with row spacing of 70 cm. When planting, the rhizomes are laid in a continuous tape in moist soil, the grooves are immediately covered with soil.

Planting is carried out by transplanting machines adapted for planting rhizomes, or manually.

The planting rate of rhizomes is 800-1000 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, 500-600 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko).

Planting depth in spring (6) 7-8 cm, in autumn – 10-12 cm.

As planting material, seedlings from young shoots can be used, which are bred in the spring in a nursery from overwintered lashes and rhizomes. The shoots of seedlings are dug out of the nursery and immediately planted with watering in a wide-row way (70 cm), in a row the distance between plants should be 12-15 cm.

Planting of seedlings in the southern regions begins in April, in Ukraine – in early May, with a plant height of 8-10 cm at the rate of 8-10 plants per 1 m of row. Plant density should be at least 130 thousand/ha.

Crop care

Full shoots when planting rhizomes occur in 28-30 days.

Before germination, harrowing is carried out with light or medium harrows across the rows.

During the growing season, 2-3 (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, up to 4-5 during the summer, Kolomeichenko) processing of row spacings are carried out. The first inter-row cultivation is carried out when shoots appear, leaving protective strips 15-20 m wide. Subsequent treatments are carried out as necessary with weeding.

In plantings of the second and third years, if necessary, segments of rhizomes or rooted shoots are planted.

When leaving the plantation for the second and third years, after harvesting the second cut, to ensure good development of rhizomes, row spacing is cultivated to a depth of 6-8 cm. Autumn mulching with manure at the rate of 20-30 t/ha gives a good result.

Harvest

Peppermint leaves are harvested during the first, second and third years of life. Maximum productivity is noted in the second year of plant life.

Harvesting is started in the phase of technical ripeness. In plants of the first year of cultivation, it occurs when 50% of plants bloom (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, in the full flowering phase, Kolomeychenko) or at the end of July, the second and third years – with mass budding or at the end of June.

Mowing is carried out by hay mowers, legume mowers and bean harvesters, for example, ЖБА-3.5А.

The mowed mass is left in the field for 1-2 days, the moisture content of the mass should reach at least 30%. After drying, it is picked up with the help of pick-up loaders, collected in vehicles and sent for processing.

The developed technology for harvesting and processing mint with whole dried plants in container cubes provides for:

  • mowing plants and laying them in swaths using ЖБА-3.5L, ЖБА-4.2 harvesters, Е-301 mowers;
  • drying of green mass within 1-2 days;
  • selection of rolls with simultaneous grinding of dried mass and loading into
  • processing machines of the КУФ-1.8 type; Е-280;
  • transportation of raw materials to the place of processing.

Cultivation under irrigation conditions

Peppermint is responsive to watering. Under irrigation conditions (during the Soviet period), it was grown in the Kuban, Moldova and southern Ukraine, which made it possible to obtain up to two crops of essential oil raw materials per year. The collection of essential oil reached 60-90 kg/ha compared to 20-30 kg/ha in the absence of irrigation.

Irrigation is started when the soil moisture is 70-75% of the lowest moisture capacity. Watering is carried out using a sprinkler. Irrigation rate is 450-500 m 3 /ha. Watering is stopped two weeks before harvesting the leaves.

Continuous harvesting of mint rhizomes and thinning of transitional plantations is carried out using КПМ-2 root-thinner-thinners.

Mint rhizomes are stored in above-ground ridges. Shelter of the ridges with earth is carried out with a БН-100А bead-coverer with a thickness of the shelter of 10-15 cm. When a stable cooling occurs, that is, temperatures down to -8 … -10 °C, the thickness of the shelter is increased to 15-20 cm. The optimum storage temperature of rhizomes in the ridges is 0 …-4 °С.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Cumin

Economic importance

Cumin fruits contain 4-7% essential oil. The essential oil contains carvone, which is used as a flavoring agent in liqueurs, and limonene, which is used in perfumery.

14-16% fatty oil is also obtained from the fruits, which is used for technical purposes. The seeds are used as a spice and in baked goods.

Good honey plant.

Cultivation areas and yield

Small areas under cumin cultivation during the Soviet period were in the Khmelnytsky and Lvov regions of Ukraine.

On the territory of Russia, as an agricultural crop, it is grown in the Non-Chernozem and Central Black Earth zones.

The average seed yield is 0.6-0.8 t/ha.

Botanical description

Cumin (Carum carvi L.) is a biennial plant belonging to the Celery family (Apiaceae).

Large tap root.

Stem hollow, erect, branched.

Plant height 50-70 cm.

The leaves are alternate, tripartite.

The inflorescence is a complex umbrella. The flowers are located on long stalks, white.

The fruit is a two-seed, consisting of two one-seeded fruitlets. On the surface of the fruit there are ten longitudinal ribs, in which there are tubules with essential oil. The weight of 1000 seeds is 2.3-2.5 g.

Biological features

Cumin is a culture undemanding to heat.

Makes high demands on moisture and soil. Fertile soils and sufficient moisture are optimal for it.

Light-loving plant.

Vegetation

In the first year of life, the cumin plant develops a root and a rosette of leaves. Fruiting occurs in the second year.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, the best predecessors of cumin are considered winter cereals, coming after the fallow into which manure was introduced, legumes.

Fertilizer system

Cumin responds well to fertilization.

N45-60P45-60K45-60 is applied as the main fertilizer .

When sowing, granular superphosphate is applied at the rate of 10 kg/ha P2O5.

When a rosette of leaves is formed, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers in the calculation of NP at 10-15 kg/ha.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for cumin includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm (after winter crops, peeling is carried out before plowing);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.

Sowing

Start sowing cumin early in the spring.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 45 cm.

The seeding rate is 10-12 kg/ha.

Seeding depth 2 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes: loosening row spacing to break the soil crust and kill weeds.

In the first year of plant life, light hilling is carried out in autumn to protect them from freezing.

In the second year of life in early spring, harrowing is carried out across the rows.

Harvest

Harvesting of cumin seeds is started when 60% of the fruits are browned.

The cleaning method is single-phase. It is carried out by grain combines.

For storage lay seeds with a moisture content of not more than 12%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Anise

Economic importance

Anise seeds contain 1.5-4% essential oil and (16) 18-22% fat.

The composition of the essential oil includes anethole (up to 80%), which is widely used in the perfumery, pharmaceutical and food (alcoholic beverage and confectionery) industries. Fatty oil finds application in paint and varnish production and soap production. Anise essential oil for medical purposes is used to treat the stomach, with colds as an expectorant. Included in the composition of medical fees (teas).

Anise seeds are used in baking, for the production of canned food and confectionery.

Anise seed cake serves as a valuable concentrated feed for cattle, pigs and poultry. 100 kg of cake correspond to 85 feed units.

Good honey plant.

Crop history

Anise is native to Asia Minor. In culture, it began to be grown BC in Egypt, Greece and Rome.

In Russia, this culture began to grow in the 30s of the XIX century.

Cultivation areas and yield

Anise is grown in many countries of Asia (India, China) and Europe (countries of the Balkan Peninsula, Germany, France, the Netherlands), but the sown areas are relatively small. Also grown in America.

In 1986, the sown area under this crop in the USSR was about 2 thousand hectares.

The main areas of cultivation are the Voronezh, Belgorod and Kursk regions. In small quantities, it is also sown in the forest-steppe part of Ukraine.

The yield of anise seeds is usually 0.8-1.0 t/ha.

Botanical description

Anise, or common anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is an annual plant belonging to the Umbrella or Celery family (Apiaceae).

Taproot, well developed.

Stem erect, branched above.

Plant height 40-60 cm.

The leaves are alternate. The lower leaves are rounded or kidney-shaped, on long petioles. The middle ones are trifoliate, on petioles of shorter length. The upper ones are strongly dissected into linear segments, without petioles (sessile).

The inflorescence is a complex umbrella. Flowers small, white.

The fruit is an ovoid, oblate-ovate or pear-shaped two-seeded, consisting of two single-seeded non-cracking greenish-gray fruitlets. Surface with short adpressed hairs, with many longitudinal ribs, in which tubules with essential oil are located. The taste of the fruit is sweet and spicy. The weight of 1000 seeds is 3.5-4 g.

Biological features

Anise is considered to be heat demanding.

Seeds begin to germinate slowly at a temperature of 4-5 °C. The optimum germination temperature is over 10 °C.

The optimum temperature for the growth and development of anise is 24-25 °C.

The greatest need for heat falls on the period from the beginning of flowering to seed maturation.

For seeds to swell, moisture of 120% of their mass is necessary.

The greatest need for water falls on the period of flowering and seed formation.

Light-loving plant.

Demanding on the soil. Fertile, weed-free chernozems are optimally suited.

Vegetation

The vegetation period of anise is 120-130 days.

The following phases of growth and development are noted:

  • seedlings;
  • socket;
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter cereal and tilled crops are considered to be the best predecessors of anise.

Bad predecessors are coriander, which clogs subsequent crops with carrion.

Fertilizer system

Anise responds well to fertilization.

N45-60P45-60K45-60 (Vavilov) is applied as the main fertilizer. According to other recommendations, N45P60K30 (Kolomeichenko). Also, N60-80P60-80K60-80 (Niklyaev).

When sowing, granular superphosphate is applied at the rate of 10 kg/ha P2O5.

When a rosette of leaves is formed, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers in the calculation of NP at 10-15 kg/ha (Vavilov). According to other recommendations, N20.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for anise includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm (after winter crops, peeling is carried out before plowing);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.

Sowing

Before sowing, air-heat treatment of seeds is carried out for 2-3 days.

Sowing begins simultaneously with the sowing of early grain crops (or simultaneously with coriander).

Usually, a wide-row sowing method is used with row spacing of 45 cm or a two-row belt method with a distance between ribbons of 45 cm, in ribbons between rows, a distance of 15 cm (45x15x15 cm). On weed-free fields, the usual row method can be used.

Seeding rates:

  • for a wide-row sowing method – 12 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations 10-15 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko);
  • for two-line tape – 14 kg/ha;
  • for an ordinary soldier – 18 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other
  • recommendations 20-25 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko).

Sowing depth 2-3 cm, in case of drying of the soil – 4-5 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes: pre-emergence harrowing using light harrows across the rows and at least three inter-row tillage.

Harvest

Seed ripening in anise is uneven. Delay in cleaning leads to shedding.

Anise harvesting can be performed in a single-phase and two-phase method.

Single-phase harvesting is used in unstable weather, on sparse and fallen crops. In this case, harvesting begins at the beginning of the full ripeness of the seeds.

Two-phase harvesting is used in fields with normal plant density. They start when the seeds acquire a greenish-gray color (or when the fruits of medium umbrellas become grayish).

After threshing, if necessary, the seeds are dried. For storage lay seeds with a moisture content of not more than 12%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Coriander

Coriander is a valuable essential oil crop. It can also be attributed to spicy, vegetable and medicinal plants.

Economic importance

Coriander, as an essential oil plant, is grown to obtain fruits that contain from 0.2 to 1.2% essential oil (Vavilov; according to other sources, 1.4-2.1%). The chemical composition of coriander essential oil includes linalool (60-70%, has the smell of lily of the valley), decylaldehyde, terpenes and other valuable compounds.

Coriander oil is used in the perfume industry to obtain aromatic substances with the smell of violet, lily, lemon, rose, lily of the valley, etc. The essential oil has medicinal properties: analgesic, antiseptic, choleretic, anti-hemorrhoid and wound healing properties and promotes the secretion of the glands of the digestive system.

The fruits also contain 18-22% fatty oil, with a large proportion of oleic acid glycerides. It is used in the manufacture of soap, in the textile and printing industries.

Coriander seeds are used in the food industry (bakery, confectionery and brewing), in medicine. The fruits and the above-ground vegetative part have choleretic, laxative, anti-hemorrhoid properties and are part of the medicinal preparations (teas).

Meal obtained after distillation or extraction of essential and fatty oils from fruits is used for feed purposes and is a good concentrated feed for farm animals. 100 kg of meal correspond to 69 feed units. Cake from coriander seeds contains approximately 17% protein, 7% fat, 30% nitrogen-free extractives, 8% ash.

Leaves in the countries of the Caucasus and the East serve as a seasoning for dishes.

Coriander is a honey plant.

Crop history

Coriander has been cultivated since ancient times. Homeland is the Mediterranean region.

It was grown in Asia, Africa, Europe and America.

It was brought to Russia from Spain in 1830.

Cultivation areas and yield

In 1986, more than 140 thousand hectares were occupied under coriander crops in the USSR.

A third of the crops of this crop in Russia falls on the Voronezh, Kursk and Belgorod regions. It is cultivated in Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Rostov regions, Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, in North Ossetia. Also grown in Kazakhstan and Ukraine (Kirovograd region). Probably can be grown in more northern regions.

The average yield of coriander seeds is 0.5-1.2 t/ha. Under favorable conditions, with a high level of agricultural technology, it can produce 2.0-2.5 t/ha.

Botanical description

Coriander, sometimes colandra, Coriandrum sativum L. is an annual plant belonging to the Celery family (Apiaceae).

Taproot, well developed.

The stem is branched above.

Plants 50-100 cm high.

The leaves are alternate. Lower leaves on long petioles, pinnate. The middle leaves are double-pinnate. The upper ones are strongly dissected into narrow-linear lobes.

The inflorescence is a complex umbrella. The flowers are white, pale pink, yellow, small, quintuple type. Ovary two-celled, inferior. Cross-pollination by insects.

The fruit is a spherical yellow-brown two-seeded, consisting of two single-seeded, indehiscent fruitlets. Essential oil accumulates in special tubules, which are located on the inside of both fruitlets. Weight of 1000 seeds 7-10 g.

The plant has a sharp bug smell, especially strong in the flowering phase. When ripe, this smell disappears and the fruits acquire a spicy taste and a characteristic smell.

Biological features

Coriander is considered not too demanding on heat.

Seed germination begins at 6-8 °C. However, at such temperatures, seedlings appear only 20-25 days after sowing. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -7 … -8 (-10) ° С. Plants need the most heat during the flowering and maturation phases.

Coriander is a drought-resistant plant, but makes high demands on moisture supply. It is most sensitive to moisture supply during the period of increased growth of the vegetative mass and in the flowering phase.

Light-loving plant.

Fertile chernozems are optimal. Heavy clay and marshy soils are unsuitable. It also produces poor yields on chalk slopes, sandy loamy, alkaline and acidic soils.

Vegetation

At the beginning of development, the growth of coriander is slow, and the plants are easily oppressed by weeds. Intensive growth of the stem begins after the formation of 7-9 leaves.

Flowering and ripening is unfriendly.

The growing season is 90-110 days.

There are the following phases of growth and development:

  • seedlings;
  • socket;
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter and early cereal crops, legumes, corn, potatoes are considered the best predecessors of coriander.

Poor predecessors are late-harvested crops (sunflower, sugar beet, Sudanese grass, etc.), since they take a large amount of nutrients and moisture out of the soil.

Coriander can serve as a precursor of spring and winter grain crops, in the southern regions – sunflower.

Coriander is returned to its former place of crop rotation no earlier than after
4-5 years.

Fertilizer system

Coriander plants consume nutrients unevenly during the growing season. The maximum consumption falls on the flowering phase. The lack of nutrients in the soil, as well as moisture, during this period leads to a decrease in yield.

Coriander responds well to fertilization.

Organic fertilizers are recommended to be applied under the previous crop at the rate of 20 t/ha of manure.

Mineral fertilizers are applied directly under the crop: NPK is applied in the amount of 45-60 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations 65-80 kg/ha, Niklyaev) before the pre-sowing tillage, phosphorus is applied in the rows during sowing 10-15 kg/ha. In the phase of 4-5 leaves, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are also fertilized at a rate of 20 kg/ha.

The effectiveness of potash fertilizers for coriander is considered very low. Therefore, on ordinary and carbonate chernozems, as well as on chestnut soils, it is sufficient to apply N60P60. For leached chernozem and dark gray forest soils, it is recommended to apply N60P60K60.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for coriander includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm; if coriander is placed after cereals, then peeling is carried out before plowing;
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation with harrowing.

In the southern regions, with severe clogging of fields, the second plowing of the soil is carried out to a depth of 10-12 cm after the emergence of weeds.

On clean and slightly compacted soils, only pre-sowing harrowing can be carried out. Whereas on compacted soils, pre-sowing cultivation is required to a depth of 5-6 cm.

Sowing

For sowing use large and leveled seeds. A good effect is given by air-thermal (solar) treatment for 3-4 days.

Before sowing, the seeds are treated with an 80% solution of TMTD at the rate of 4 kg of the drug per 1 ton of seeds.

Sowing begins in early spring, in the first days of field work.

The sowing method is wide-row with row spacing of 45 cm. It is usually carried out with beet seeders. The usual row sowing method can also be used, provided the fields are clean from weeds.

The seeding rate for the wide-row method is (12) 13-15 (16) kg ha, for the usual row method – 20-22 kg/ha.

The depth of seed placement is 2-4 cm (Vavilov). According to other sources, the sowing depth is 4-5 cm (Kolomeichenko).

After sowing, the soil is rolled.

Crop care

4-5 days after sowing, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out. After pecking the seeds, a second harrowing is additionally carried out.

Care for coriander crops after germination consists of harrowing and 2-3 inter-row tillage.

Good effect gives additional bee pollination during flowering.

Harvest

Coriander fruits do not ripen at the same time. Ripe fruits easily crumble, which, under adverse weather conditions, leads to large crop losses, as well as carrion in subsequent crops. Harvesting late leads to an increase in fatty oil content, while the essential oil content decreases.

It is recommended to use a two-phase method for cleaning. In this case, harvesting starts when (30) 40% of the fruits are brown and ends when 80% of the fruits are brown. For mowing coriander, it is better to use wide-cut headers with a cutting height of 15-20 cm. The width of a double swath should not exceed 2 m. Picking and threshing of swaths begins when the fruit moisture reaches 15-16%, usually the period occurs 5-6 days after mowing. For the selection and threshing of rolls, a grain combine is used, for example, “Niva”, “Kolos”, at a reduced speed of the threshing drum (500-600 rpm).

The heap from under the combine is cleaned with the help of heap-cleaning machines. The fruits are sorted using a grain cleaning machine ОС-4.5А.

Seeds are stored for storage when the moisture content of the seeds is not more than 12%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Essential oil crops

Essential oil crops – agricultural crops, in seeds, inflorescences, leaves, stems and other plant organs that contain volatile aromatic substances – essential oils.

Essential oil crops include:

Meaning

Essential oils are a mixture of organic compounds: carbohydrates, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, organic acids and other complex organic substances. Most essential oils are present in the chemical composition of plants in a free form.

The content of essential oils in plants of essential oil crops varies over a very wide range: from thousandths of a percent to 22%. The content of essential oils also varies within plants of the same species, but much less, and depends on the soil and climatic conditions of cultivation, age, phase of plant development and other conditions. For example, in a warm and dry climate, plants accumulate more essential oils than in a cold and humid one. As a rule, the highest content of essential oils in plants falls on the phase of flowering and seed ripening.

In Russia and the countries of the former USSR, approximately 30 species of essential oil plants are cultivated, most of which belong to the Celery ( Umbelliferae ) or Lamiaceae ( Labiatae ) family.

The sown area occupied by essential oil crops in the USSR in 1984 was more than 180 thousand hectares.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Lallemancy

Economic importance

The oil content in the seeds of lallemancy is 23-38%. Lallemancy oil is a fast drying oil, used in the paint and varnish industry and in the production of drying oil. Its technical qualities are similar to perilla oil.

Refined lallemancy oil is suitable for consumption.

The cake is used for feed purposes.

Cultivation areas and yield

Lallemantsnu has long been cultivated in the countries of Asia Minor.

In Russia, this crop is grown in small areas, mainly in the Rostov Region, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories.

Seed yield reaches 1.0-1.2 t/ha.

Botanical description

Lallemancia (Lallemancia iberica F. et M.) is an annual plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Labiatae).

Taproot, well developed.

Stem erect, tetrahedral, branched. Plant height 60-70 cm.

The leaves are opposite, oblong, entire. The lower leaves are on short petioles, the upper ones are almost sessile.

Flowers are collected 5-8 in false whorls. Corolla two-lipped, white, pink or blue. Self-pollination predominates, cross-pollination by insects is possible.

The fruit consists of four small nuts (seeds).

Seeds are small, oblong, 4-5 mm long, dark brown or dark purple, with a double scar at the base. The mass of 1000 seeds is 4-5 g.

A feature of lallemancy is the weak shedding of ripened seeds in dry weather and, conversely, strong shedding in wet weather. This property is explained by the fact that in dry weather, the edges of the calyx of the fruit are bent inward, thereby preventing the seeds from spilling out, while in wet weather they diverge and the seeds spill out freely.

Biological features

Lallemancy is not demanding on heat and moisture.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 3-5 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -6 °C.

Drought tolerant plant.

A shorter day leads to a slower ripening.

Lallemancy can be cultivated on various soils. The most optimal are black earth, on which it gives the highest yields.

Vegetation

The growing season is about 80 days. In dry years, it can be reduced to 65-67 days.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, the best predecessors for Lallemancy are winter wheat and row crops.

Lallemancy itself, thanks to its short growing season, is a good precursor for winter crops.

Fertilizer system

Lallemancy responds well to the application of mineral fertilizers. The recommended fertilizer application rates are N45P45K45.

Tillage system

Tillage for lallemancy includes:

  • autumn plowing (with preliminary peeling after grain crops);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.

Sowing

Lallemancy seeds before sowing are treated with a 65% solution of fentiuram at the rate of 3 kg of the drug per 1 ton of seeds.

Sowing starts early.

The sowing method is ordinary or wide-row with a row spacing of 45 cm.

The seeding rate for the usual row method is 18-20 kg/ha, for the inter-row method – 8-10 kg/ha.

Sowing depth 2-3 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes harrowing after germination. On wide-row crops, 3-4 inter-row tillage is also carried out.

Harvest

The harvesting of lallemancy is started when a dark color appears in the seeds
in whorls located on the lower part of the stems.

The single-phase method of harvesting with converted combine harvesters at a low cut is more preferable.

Lallemancy seeds with a moisture content of not more than 10% are laid for storage.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Perilla

Economic importance

Perilla seeds contain 40-45% fast drying technical oil. Perilla oil is used in the automotive, shipbuilding, electrical, paint and varnish industries.

Perilla cake serves as a concentrated feed for farm animals.

Cultivation areas and yield

Perilla is grown in China, Korea and Japan.

In Russia, it is grown in small areas in the Primorsky Territory.

Seed yield reaches 1.0-1.2 t/ha.

Botanical description

Perilla, or sudza, Perilla frutescens Brit. (Perilla ocymoides L.) is an annual plant belonging to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family.

The root penetrates to a depth of 1 m.

Stem erect, branched. Plant height 1-1.5 m.

The leaves are broadly ovate, the edges are serrate, on long petioles.

Inflorescence – brush. The flowers are small. The corolla is double-lipped. 4 stamens. The ovary is four-celled. Self-pollinator, also cross-pollinated by insects.

The fruit breaks up into 4 small round nuts, with a mesh surface. The weight of 1000 seeds is 2-3.5 g.

Biological features

Perilla is demanding on growing conditions.

The minimum temperature for seed germination is 7-8 °C, the optimum temperature is 10-12 °C. Plants are able to withstand frosts down to -1 … -2 °С. Adult plants do not tolerate low autumn temperatures well.

High temperatures in the flowering and seeding phases lead to flower drop, incomplete seeding, which reduces the yield.

Moisture-loving plant. The greatest need for moisture falls on the flowering phase.

Perilla is a short daylight plant. Favorable low light intensity.

Structural chernozem and alluvial soils of river valleys are optimal.

Vegetation

The development of perilla plants from germination to the beginning of branching of the stem proceeds slowly, then growth accelerates sharply.

The growing season is 120-150 days. With the advancement of crops to the north, the duration of the growing season is lengthened.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of perilla in crop rotation are winter cereals, row crops and legumes.

Fertilizer system

Perilla responds well to fertilization.

The use of manure at the rate of 30 tons per 1 ha leads to an increase in yield up to 2 times.

Approximate recommended application rates of mineral fertilizers – N45P60K40 kg/ha.

Tillage system

Tillage for the railing should be carried out carefully and includes:

  • early spring plowing;
  • at least two cultivations followed by harrowing;
  • pre-sowing soil compaction.

Sowing

Seeds with a purity of at least 95% and a germination rate of at least 75% are suitable for sowing. Additionally, they are treated with a 65% solution of fentiuram at the rate of 3 kg of the drug per 1 ton of seeds.

Sowing perilla is carried out when the topsoil is warmed up to 12 °C.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 60 cm.

Seeding rate – 5-8 kg/ha.

The depth of sowing seeds is 3-4 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes harrowing, which is carried out at the beginning of germination, and 3-4 inter-row treatments.

Harvest

When ripe, perilla seeds crumble heavily.

Harvesting is started before the seeds begin to ripen, when about 20% of the seeds acquire a characteristic color.

Cleaning is usually carried out in a two-phase way.

Seeds with a moisture content of not more than 9% are laid for storage.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Sesame

Economic importance

Sesame ranks first among oilseeds in terms of oil content. Its seeds contain 50-65% oil, 16-19% protein and 16-18% soluble carbohydrates. The iodine number of sesame oil is 103-112.

Sesame, or sesame, oil, which is obtained by cold pressing, is characterized by high taste and resembles olive (Provencal) oil. This oil has a light yellow color, excellent taste, no smell. It is used for food purposes, in the production of canned food and confectionery, as well as in medicine.

Sesame oil, obtained by hot pressing, is used for technical purposes.

Sesame seeds are used in the confectionery industry, for example, for the manufacture of sweets and oriental sweets, and halva is prepared from peeled and ground seeds.

The cake obtained by the cold pressing process contains 8% oil and approximately 40% protein. It also finds application in the confectionery industry. Cake obtained by hot pressing is used as a good concentrated feed for farm animals. 100 kg of cake correspond to 132 feed units.

Crop history

Sesame is considered an ancient crop, the cultivation of which began in Asia and Africa. Homeland – Africa.

Sesame appeared in Russia at the end of the 17th century.

Cultivation areas and yield

The main producers of sesame are India, China, Burma, Pakistan, some African countries and southern Europe, Mexico.

The area of ​​crops occupied by sesame in the world at the end of the 20th century was 7 million hectares or 4% of the area occupied by oilseeds. The gross harvest of seeds was 2.5 million tons. The average yield was 0.4 t/ha.

From the countries of the former USSR, it is cultivated by the countries of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan) and Transcaucasia.

In Russia, small areas are occupied by this crop, mainly in the North Caucasus.

The yield of sesame seeds under conditions without irrigation is 1.0-1.2 t/ha, under irrigation 1.8-2.0 (3.0) t/ha.

Botanical description

Cultivated sesame, or Indian, Sesamum indicum L. is an annual plant belonging to the Sesame family (Pedaliaceae).

Root

The root is taproot, penetrates the soil to a depth of 1 m.

Stem

The stem is erect, pubescent with soft hairs.

Plants 1.2-1.5 m high.

Leaves

Leaves petiolate, alternate or opposite, pubescent. The shape of the leaves depends on the position on the stem and variety. In some varieties, the leaves are whole, the lower ones are large and wide, the plants decrease towards the top. In other varieties, the lower leaves are dissected, the upper ones are whole, narrow, lanceolate.

Inflorescence

The flowers are of the five type, located in the axils of the leaves, 1-2, sitting on short legs.

Corolla white or pink to purple. Calyx and corolla pubescent.

Plants are self-pollinating, cross-pollination by bees is possible.

Fruit

The fruit is an elongated pubescent capsule, consists of two or four carpels, 70-80 seeds. When ripe, the box cracks.

One plant can form 100-150 bolls.

Seeds

Seeds are small, flat, white, gray, brown or black.

The mass of 1000 seeds is 3-5 g.

Biological features

Sesame belongs to heat-loving plants.

Seeds begin to germinate at a soil temperature of 15-16 °C. Seedlings die during frosts of -0.5 … -1 °С. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of sesame seeds is 25-30 °C. When the temperature drops to 12-15 °C, plant growth stops.

Makes high demands on moisture and nutrients. Drought tolerant.

Chernozem, light loamy and sandy loamy fertile soils, free from weeds, are optimal.

Light-loving short day plant.

Vegetation

In the first month after germination, sesame plants develop slowly. Before the flowering phase comes a period of intensive growth.

The vegetation period of sesame depends on the variety and growing conditions and is (80) 90-120 days.

In sesame, the following phases of plant growth and development are distinguished:

  • seedlings;
  • first pair of true leaves;
  • budding;
  • bloom;
  • fruit formation;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of sesame in a crop rotation are winter wheat, corn, and legumes.

Fertilizer system

Sesame responds well to fertilizers.

The greatest increase in yield can be obtained by applying N90P90K90. Equally effective is the combined use of manure (10 t/ha) and complete mineral fertilizer N30P30K30 (Vavilov). According to other sources, it is not recommended to apply manure for sesame seeds in order to avoid the rapid development of the vegetative mass, it is advisable to apply it under the previous crop (Kolomeichenko). Also, the recommended application rates for mineral fertilizers are N45P45K45.

A good effect is given by row application when sowing granular superphosphate at the rate of 100 kg/ha.

Sesame belongs to crops with extended nutrient intake: plants consume approximately 67% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the flowering phase and later. This is the reason for the high responsiveness of sesame to top dressing. During the formation of the second pair of true leaves, it is recommended to feed NPK in small quantities.

Tillage system

Sesame places high demands on tillage.

Soil cultivation for sesame includes:

  • autumn plowing with preliminary peeling;
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • at least two cultivations in the spring to a depth of 4-5 cm, followed by harrowing.

On non-irrigated lands, rolling is carried out before sowing.

Sowing

Sesame sowing is started when the topsoil is sufficiently moist and warmed up to (15) 16-18 °C. When grown under irrigation conditions and with dry soil, pre-sowing watering is carried out before sowing.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 45-70 cm.

Seeding rate (5) 6-8 kg/ha.

Sowing depth 2-3 cm.

After sowing, rolling is carried out.

Crop care

Care of crops consists in carrying out 3-4 inter-row treatments.

Under irrigation conditions, irrigation is carried out along the furrows 2 times: the first – during budding, the second – during the period of mass flowering of plants. Water consumption is (600) 700-800 (1000) m3/ha.

Harvest

When ripe, sesame seeds crumble heavily.

Harvesting is started when the lower leaves turn yellow or fall off, the lower boxes on the plants turn brown, but do not open yet, and the seeds should have a normal color characteristic of the variety.

The two-phase cleaning method is more effective. When the boxes begin to
open, the seeds are shaken out of the sheaves 2-3 times by hand or threshed by self-propelled harvesters with a pick-up.

Sorted and cleaned seeds with a moisture content of not more than 9% are laid for storage.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Castor bean

Economic importance

Castor seeds contain from (40) 47 to 52 (59)% non-drying oil. In the kernels, the oil content reaches 65-70%. The oil has a high viscosity, does not harden at low temperatures (up to 16 °C), the iodine number is 82-86, and does not ignite at high temperatures. The seeds contain poisonous substances – ricin, the chemical composition of which includes a cyan group, and a less toxic alkaloid ricinin (toxalbullin).

Castor bean seed oil is obtained by hot pressing the seeds or by solvent extraction. Castor oil obtained by these methods is used in leather, textile, paint and varnish, soap, perfume, metalworking and other industries. The oil obtained by the cold method is used in medicine and is called castor oil. Castor oil and castor oil differ in different content of toxic substances: they are partially present in castor oil, and practically absent in castor oil.

Castor oilcake is used to produce casein glue and as an organic fertilizer with a nitrogen content of up to 7.5%, up to 2% phosphorus. It is not suitable for livestock feed without pre-treatment, as it contains toxic substances. At oil mills, castor oil cake can be decontaminated, after which it is permissible to feed it to animals in small quantities. 100 kg of oilcake correspond to 92 feed units and contain 2.6 kg of digestible protein.

Castor bean leaves can be used to feed silkworms.

Crop history

The homeland of the castor bean is tropical Africa, where it is still found in the wild. Also found in the countries of Western and Central Asia, Afghanistan and India.

It began to be cultivated in ancient times in Egypt, from where it later spread to Asia, America and Europe.

In Russia, castor beans began to be grown in the second half of the 19th century. The first mention of it dates back to 1840.

Cultivation areas and yield

In 1986, the area sown with castor beans in the world was about 1.5 million hectares (or 1% of all sown areas occupied by oilseeds), of which 500 thousand hectares were located in India, more than 400 thousand hectares – in Brazil . There are small areas under crops in Italy, Argentina, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, China, and African countries. The gross harvest of oilseeds was 1.4 million tons.

In the USSR in 1986, the sown area was about 140 thousand hectares.

The main areas of castor bean cultivation in Russia are the North Caucasus, the Rostov Region, the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. Also grown in the south of Ukraine.

The average seed yield is 0.8-0.9 t/ha. The maximum yield is 1.5-2.0 t/ha.

In Russia, the yield is usually 0.5 t/ha, in the USSR – 0.8 t/ha.

Botanical description

Cultivated castor oil belongs to the genus Ricinus , family Euphorbia ( Euphorbiaceae ). The genus Ricinus includes three species:

  • castor bean (Ricinus microcarpus g. Pop);
  • large-fruited castor bean (Ricinus macrocarpus g. Pop.);
  • Zanzibar castor bean (Ricinus sansibarinus g. Pop.).

In Russia and on the territory of the countries of the former USSR, two types are cultivated: small-fruited castor bean and large-fruited castor bean. These species have subspecies, of which the Persian castor bean (Ricinus microcarpus ssp. persicus g. Pop.) and the blood-red castor bean (Ricinus macrocarpus ssp. sanguineus g. Pop.) are of the greatest agricultural importance.

In the tropics and subtropics, castor bean grows as a perennial plant. Plants under these conditions reach a height of 10 m, with a well-developed crown and thick stem. In our country, it is cultivated as an annual crop, as it dies in winter.

Root

The root is taproot, penetrates to a depth of 3-4 m and spreads to the sides up to 2-2.5 m.

Stem

The stem is straight, hollow inside, strongly branched.

Plant height 1-3 m or more.

Persian castor bean plants are shorter, with a green stem and a waxy coating. Blood red castor bean plants have a red or brown stem without a waxy coating.

Leaves

The leaves are large, on long petioles, palmately incised, with 7-11 lobes.

In Persian castor beans, the color of the leaves is green, in blood red – green with red veins.

Inflorescence

The inflorescence is a raceme, up to 80 cm long in Persian castor beans, up to 60 cm in blood-red ones. 2-12 inflorescences are formed on one plant.

In the upper part of the brush are collected female flowers, in the lower part – male. In one brush there are from 50 to 200 flowers. Flowers are small, dioecious. Perianth simple, five-petalled.

Male flowers with numerous stamens. Female – with a three-celled ovary and three two-lobed stigmas.

Plants are cross-pollinated.

Fruit

The fruit is a three-celled spherical or elongated capsule, which contains one seed in each nest. The surface is smooth or covered with thorns, the thorns become prickly when ripe.

The boxes located on the central brush ripen first, the lateral ones later.

In the Persian castor bean, the ripe bolls crack and the seeds spill out. In blood-red castor beans, the boxes do not crack.

Seeds

Seeds are oval-ovoid, with a shiny brittle shell, variegated. In the seeds of the blood-red castor bean, a dark brown color predominates and there is a clearly expressed papillary outgrowth – caruncle, in the Persian castor bean, gray color prevails, and the caruncle is less noticeable. Persian castor seeds are smaller than blood red.

The weight of 1000 seeds is from 200 to 500 g.

Biological features

Temperature requirements

Castor oil is considered a heat-loving plant.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 12-13 °C, at 10 °C only single shoots appear. The optimum germination temperature is 16-18 °C.

Seeds germinate in 8 days at 15 °C, 4-5 days at 20 °C, and 2-3 days at 25-30 °C.

Normal development of plants requires 25-30 °C (Vavilov). According to other sources, 20-25 °C (Kolomeichenko). In cool weather, the ripening period increases significantly, and the yield and oil content of seeds decrease.

Seedlings and adult plants can be damaged when the temperature drops to -2 °C.

The intake of nutrients in castor beans increases at a temperature of 30-35 °C.

Moisture requirements

Castor oil is demanding on moisture. The amount of precipitation during the growing season should be at least 300 mm.

High yields are possible only under conditions of sufficient moisture or irrigation. In dry years, leaves fall off the plants, flowers and boxes fall off. With a lack of moisture, the yield and oil content of seeds decreases sharply.

Thanks to a powerful and developed root system, plants are able to tolerate short-term droughts.

Soil requirements

Castor oil is demanding on the soil. Optimum (sandy and loamy) chernozems and gray soils, rich in nutrients and well aerated.

The optimal reaction of the soil solution is pH 6.0-7.3.

Heavy clay, light sandy, swampy, floating, saline and alkaline soils are unsuitable for cultivation.

Light requirements

Light-loving short day plant.

Vegetation

Vegetation period of castor (90) 100-120 (150) days.

Phases of growth and development of castor beans:

  • seedlings;
  • 2nd real sheet;
  • 4-5th sheet;
  • the formation of inflorescences;
  • bloom;
  • maturation.

Crop rotation

In a crop rotation, castor beans are usually placed in a tilled field after winter wheat, corn, and legumes. Also, the predecessors can be winter crops going through a clean or busy fallow, spring and winter cereals going through a layer of perennial grasses and after tilled crops.

Castor oil can serve as a good predecessor for spring grain crops, sunflower, with good agricultural technology – winter wheat, and in some regions of the North Caucasus – winter.

Because of the danger of being affected by Fusarium, castor oil is returned to its original place in the crop rotation no earlier than after 8 years.

The root system of the castor bean depletes less water compared to sunflower and has a good effect on soil structure.

Fertilizer system

Castor beans are demanding on nutrients.

For the formation of 100 kg of seeds from the soil, 7.2 kg of nitrogen, 1.7 kg of phosphorus, 5.9 kg of potassium are absorbed.

The best fertilizer for castor beans is manure, which significantly increases the yield of seeds. According to the experiments of All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds, when manure was applied, the seed yield increased: in the Krasnodar Territory – by 34.7%, in Ukraine – by 41%, in the countries of Central Asia – by 26-28%. The recommended rate of manure application is 20 (30) t/ha for autumn tillage.

Castor oil responds especially well to the application of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. According to All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds and other scientific institutions, when N60-90P90 is applied, the seed yield increases by 16-20%. Recommended application rates for mineral fertilizers N20-40P40-80K40-60 (Kolomeichenko). According to other recommendations, P80-90K80-90, which are applied under autumn tillage, and N90 – in spring (Niklyaev).

Phosphorus fertilizers give a greater effect on chernozem soils, nitrogen fertilizers on gray soils.

Also high efficiency gives pre-sowing introduction of granulated superphosphate in doses of 10-20 kg/ha P2O5. In the conditions of the Stavropol Territory, the introduction of ammophos into rows is effective when sown at the rate of 60 kg/ha.

A good effect is given by top dressing during the growing season with nitrogen, phosphorus and organic fertilizers in 1-2 stages. If the main fertilizer was not applied, then top dressing is recommended to be carried out before the first inter-row cultivation. If the main fertilizer was applied, then top dressing is carried out a little later – at the beginning of the formation of the central brush. For top dressing, you can use ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and superphosphate. From local organic fertilizers for the same purposes – bird droppings and slurry. Top dressing at the rate of N20P20 should be applied to the moist soil layer to a depth of 8-10 cm.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for castor beans includes:

  • peeling following the harvesting of previous cereal crops;
  • plowing in August to a depth of 27-30 cm with plows with skimmers;
  • snow retention;
  • early spring harrowing and sanding;
  • 2-3 cultivations with harrowing.

According to the results of All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds experiments carried out in the Krasnodar Territory in areas prone to dust storms, flat-cut tillage, including two plowing with flat-cutters and deep nonmoldboard loosening of the soil, is of great positive importance.

Under castor beans, spring chiselling is effective.

To control weeds, the herbicide treflan is used, which is applied to the soil during pre-sowing cultivation at the rate of 6-8 kg/ha according to the preparation.

Sowing

For sowing, varietal, large and leveled seeds are used. The purity of the seed must be at least 98%, germination – at least 85%.

Before sowing, the seeds are treated with granosan with dye (2 kg/t of seeds) or TMTD (4 kg/t of seeds).

Sowing begins when the danger of frost has passed, and the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to (10) 12 °C. Early or late sowing leads to a noticeable decrease in seed yield.

Sowing method – dotted with row spacing of 70 cm, using SUPN-8 or SCH-6MF seeders.

The seeding rate for large-seeded varieties is 20-25 kg/ha, for small-seeded varieties – 10-12 kg/ha.

The sowing depth is 6-8 (10) cm and varies depending on the moisture content and mechanical composition of the soil. On heavy soils, a sowing depth of 6-8 cm is recommended, on light sandy soils – 10-12 cm.

Plant density depends on varietal characteristics and growing region and usually ranges from 45 to 60 thousand/ha (Vavilov). According to other data, the recommended plant density for branched varieties is 30-40 thousand/ha, for weakly branched varieties – 50-60 thousand/ha (Kolomeichenko).

Crop care

Care of castor bean crops includes pre-emergence harrowing to break up the soil crust.

In the presence of weeds, inter-row cultivation is carried out.

In the phase of the second true leaf, seedlings are thinned out, leaving the plants in a row at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other.

In the phase of 2-3 true leaves, it is advisable to carry out harrowing by seedlings.

After the emergence of seedlings, the aisles should be kept loose.

An important agricultural technique for castor beans is chasing plants,
which consists in removing the apical point of growth of the main shoot or buds of side branches. It is carried out with the formation of 4-5 true leaves. Chasing the main shoot helps to accelerate the development of brushes on the branches of the first order. If the buds of the lateral shoots are removed, then the development of the central brush improves and maturation accelerates.

In conditions of areas with sufficient moisture and during irrigation, it is advisable to carry out hilling, which reduces the lodging of plants.

Harvest

Ripening of castor bean pods occurs unevenly. First, the boxes ripen on the central brush, then on the brushes of other orders (lateral).

Harvesting requires relatively even maturation and low humidity for most of the pods. Therefore, for these purposes, drying on the vine (desiccation or defoliation) with magnesium chlorate is carried out, when the bolls on the plants are not yet cracked. During aerial spraying, the consumption of the drug is 15 kg/ha per 100 liters of working fluid. Desiccation is performed when the bolls of the central castor bean cluster turn brown, by this time the accumulation of dry matter and oil in the seeds ends. In 1-2 days after the treatment of crops with a desiccant, the leaves dry up, however, the drying of boxes and seeds on the vine occurs in 12-15 days in favorable weather. At this time, they begin harvesting.

Harvesting is carried out single-phase and two-phase. The single-phase method is applicable only for varieties with non-cracking boxes. For this method, a ККС-6 castor-bean harvester is used, which cuts the plants, breaks and splits the boxes, separates the heap and collects the castor seeds in a separate hopper.

With a two-phase method, grain combines equipped with special devices can be used. The resulting heap is immediately dried and cleaned. After that, threshing is carried out on the castor-bean thresher КЩМ-2.

Harvesting of cracking varieties of castor beans is carried out selectively, as the brushes ripen, in 2-3 terms.

Seeds with a moisture content of not more than 6% are laid for storage (Vavilov). According to other sources, no more than 8% (Kolomeichenko).

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Camelina

Camelina (russian “ryzhik”) – oilseed crop. Sometimes it is considered as a minor early spring weed – Camelina sativa.

Economic importance

Camelina seeds contain 40-46% drying oil. Camelina oil finds its main application in the paint and varnish and soap industries. For food purposes, it is used to a limited extent due to low taste. Only fresh oil is used for food, as it quickly goes rancid during storage.

Cake from the seeds of camelina serves as a concentrated feed. 100 kg of cake correspond to 115 feed units. However, it is fed to animals in small quantities, since in large quantities it is harmful due to the presence of glycosides.

In Russia and the countries of the former USSR, spring camelina is mainly cultivated.

Cake can be used as an organic fertilizer.

Cultivation areas and yield

In Russia, the main sown areas of spring camelina are concentrated in Western and Eastern Siberia, Bashkiria and the Volga region.

In 1986, the sown area was about 10 thousand hectares.

Winter camelina is cultivated in the Saratov region in limited areas.

The average yield is 1.0-1.2 t/ha.

Botanical description

Spring camelina (Camelina saliva Czantz.) is an annual herbaceous plant of the Cabbage family (Brassicaceae).

Rod root.

The stems are well developed, thin, branching.

Plant height 50-80 cm.

Leaves lanceolate, on short petioles, entire or slightly serrated, covered with stiff hairs.

Inflorescence – brush. Flowers pale yellow, small.

Self-pollinating in northern regions, cross-pollinating in southern regions.

The fruit is a pear-shaped pod, 6-9 mm long, cracks when ripe, 6-8 seeds.

Seeds 1.5-2 mm, oblong-oval, red-brown. Weight of 1000 seeds 1-1.5 g.

Winter camelina ( Camelina silvestris Waller ). It differs from spring camelina in woody, strongly branched stem, strong pubescence of leaves and stems. The fruits are slightly smaller – 5-7 mm.

Biological features

The spring forms of camelina are undemanding to growing conditions.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-2 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -12 °C.

It tolerates drought relatively easily.

Prefers sandy and slightly saline soils.

Long daylight plants.

Vegetation

The vegetation period of spring camelina is 66-90 days. With the advancement of its crops to the north, the duration of the growing season is reduced.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of spring camelina are winter and tilled crops.

Fertilizer system

Spring camelina responds well to the application of mineral fertilizers.

Recommended fertilizer application rates are N30P45K30.

Tillage system

Camelina is demanding on careful pre-sowing tillage.

Sowing

Sowing starts early.

The sowing method is the usual ordinary.

The seeding rate is 8-10 kg/ha.

Sowing depth 2-3 cm.

Crop care

Caring for camelina crops consists in harrowing after germination.

Harvest

Seed harvesting begins in the phase of full ripeness, when the lower pods turn brown and the seeds harden.

Cleaning is carried out by converted combines.

Camelina seeds should be stored for storage with a moisture content of no more than 9%.

Sources

Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.