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Cotton is an agricultural fiber and oilseed crop.

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
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©BotBln (CC BY-SA 3.0)



Economic importance

Cotton fiber is the main type of plant raw material for the textile industry. Various fabrics are made from cotton fiber of long-staple varieties: chintz, satin, knitwear, flannel, batiste and others, in addition, it is used for the production of threads and cord. Mixed with wool or chemical fibers, cotton fiber is used to produce a wide variety of fabrics.

The down of seeds (lint or linter) is used for the manufacture of hygroscopic cotton wool, especially durable grades of paper, film, plastic, nitro-varnishes, and artificial leather.

Cotton cake can serve as a good concentrated feed for farm animals. The protein content in it reaches 40%. It is fed in small quantities (2-3 kg per day for
per head of cattle), as it contains the poisonous substance gossypol. Pigs should not be fed cake.

The peel (husk) of seeds serves as raw material for the production of ethyl and methyl alcohols, glucose, furfural, lignin, resins, feed proteins. Acetic acid, paper, biofuels are obtained from the stems and flaps of the boxes. From the leaves and bark of the stems – citric acid (the content in the leaves is up to 10%) and malic acid, resins. Plant residues can be used as organic fertilizer.

Cotton raw materials are used to make safety glass, artificial felt, fire hoses and other products.

From 1 ton of raw cotton can be obtained: (320) 340-350 kg of fiber, 570-580 kg of linted seeds, 30-40 kg of lint, 20-30 kg of other waste. When processing this amount of cotton seeds, the following can be obtained: 98-110 kg of refined oil, 20 kg of laundry soap, 225-230 kg of cake, 210-230 kg of husks.

The output from 1 kg of cotton fiber fabrics is: 12 m of chintz or 20 m of cambric, or 140 spools of thread.

Cotton is a valuable honey plant.

As a tilled crop, crop rotation is of great agrotechnical importance.

In addition to the spinning crop, cotton is also considered as one of the main oilseeds. Cotton seeds, whose share of the total mass of the raw yield reaches 65%, contain (18) 20-27% oil, including 35-40% in the kernel. The oil is suitable for eating and for producing margarine, drying oil, phytin, stearin, glycerin, soap.

Crop history

Cotton has been cultivated since ancient times. It has been grown since 3000 BC. in India and China and was used to produce spinning fiber. Approximately 500 BC cotton penetrated from China to Egypt, and in the IV-V centuries. cotton growing began to develop in Central Asia and Iran, in the 9th-10th centuries. high-quality fabrics were made from cotton fiber.

In the XIII century. cotton appeared in Transcaucasia.

In America, cotton appeared independently in Mexican and Peruvian cultures and has been known for several millennia.

The industrial processing of cotton fiber increased dramatically in the second half of the 18th century, after the invention of machine spinning and the cotton gin. In the 19th century cotton growing provided 73% of all spinning raw materials, and in the 20th century. – over 85%.

Cotton growing in Russia developed very quickly. In 1922 V.I. Lenin approved the “Regulations on the state organization of cotton growing, the cotton ginning industry and cotton procurement.” In 1929, measures were taken to free the USSR from dependence on foreign supplies of raw cotton. Special attention was paid to the development of cotton growing in the republics of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. As a result, within 3 years, the import of cotton to the USSR was greatly reduced and amounted to only 7% of the country’s need for cotton fiber, and in the prewar years it was completely stopped.

The USSR was the northernmost country in the world where cotton was grown. After the Great Patriotic War, the USSR ranked first in world agriculture in terms of yield and quality of cotton fiber.

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of the green mass, mowed in the phase of mass flowering:

  • water – 65-70%;
  • carbohydrates – 17%;
  • protein – 2.5%;
  • fats – 0.8%.

Also in the green mass contains a large amount of calcium and phosphorus.

Cultivation areas and yield

The world area occupied by cotton crops in 1984 was 33-34 million hectares, and the gross harvest of raw cotton was 42-45 million tons. The main cotton-growing countries of the world were the USSR, the USA, China, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Mexico , Egypt and Turkey. They accounted for approximately 80% of all raw cotton produced in the world.

In the early 2000s, cotton was grown in about 60 countries around the world. The total sown area was 35 million hectares, including:

  • India – 7.5 million hectares;
  • USA – 4.5 million hectares;
  • China – 4.8 million hectares;
  • Brazil – 1.9 million hectares;
  • Pakistan – 1.8 million hectares;
  • Egypt – 0.6 million hectares.

In the USSR, the main cotton-growing regions were the republics of Central Asia: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Transcaucasia (Azerbaijan). The sown area in the USSR reached 3.2-3.3 million hectares, and the yield of raw cotton in 1984 was 2.3-2.6 tons/ha, the gross harvest was 8.6 million tons.

Record yields reached 4-5 t/ha.

For the period up to 2000, the USSR planned to achieve a harvest of 2.8-3 million tons of cotton fiber and 9.1-9.4 million tons of raw cotton. In addition, it was planned to improve the quality of the fiber, its output and reduce losses.

Botanical description

Cotton (Gossypium) belongs to the Malvaceae family (Malvaceae). A perennial plant, but more often, especially in temperate regions, it is cultivated as an annual crop.

An adult plant is a bush with a height of 90 to 130-180 cm.


The root is taproot, well developed, penetrates the soil to a depth of 1.5-2 (3) m. In the upper part, many lateral roots depart from it. Horizontally extends to 1.5-2 m.

In the first month of plant development, the root system grows very quickly. Before the budding phase, the main root develops especially intensively, while after this phase, the lateral roots develop. In the first two weeks, the growth of the main root averages 2.5-3.2 cm per day, and the total growth of lateral roots reaches 30-45 cm.


The stem is straight, branching, strong enough, woody (rough) in the lower part, covered with hairs.

There are 2-3 buds in the axils of the leaves. Those of them that are in the axils of the first leaves usually remain dormant, and branches begin to form from the buds of the axils of subsequent leaves, more often 3-5 leaves.


The branches are divided into growth (monopodial), or monopodia, and fruit (sympodial), or sympodia.

Monopodia are formed in the lower part of the stem and depart from it at an acute angle. Monopodia grow in a straight line and are usually stronger than sympodial ones.

Fruit branches on the stem are located above the growth branches. They form a more obtuse angle with the stem and grow articulated, along a broken line. Sympodia are peduncles, on which fruits (boxes) then appear.

Cotton bush: 1 - main stem; 2 - box; 3 - fruit branches; 4 - growth branches

The number of monopodial branches on the main stem before the formation of the first sympodium is different and depends on the forms and varieties of cotton species, as well as on growing conditions.

In the tropics, there are forms of cotton, in which the number of monopodial branches is from 15 to 40 pieces. This type of cotton branching is called monopodial.

A typical cotton plant is treelike. Its sympodial branches form high and bloom very late.

In the conditions of the countries of Central Asia, there are usually only 2-3 monopodia on a cotton bush before the formation of the first sympodium. This type of branching is called sympodial. The height of the laying of the first sympodial (fruit) branch on the main stem is one of the signs of the precocity of cotton.

There are forms of cotton that do not form branches, and the fruits sit on shortened stalks, 1-2 in axils of the leaves of the main stem. This type of branching is called zero. Bushes of this type are very compact. Such forms of cotton were bred in the Soviet period and were used to produce fine-staple cotton.

Cotton varieties differ in the number and length of internodes of fruit branches. Some varieties have fruit branches with one internode, at the end of which all the buds give buds and boxes, so the branch stops further growth. This type of branch is called limiting. The cotton bush with the limiting type of branching has a compressed columnar shape.

Fruit branches with several internodes are of the unlimited type.

Cotton branch
Fruit branch (sympodium) of the limiting type
Fruit branch of cotton
Fruit branch (sympodium) of unlimited type

Depending on the length of the internodes, the unlimited sympodial branches are divided into subtypes:

  • I – with shortened internodes 3-5 cm;
  • II – with average internodes 6-10 cm;
  • III – with long internodes 11-15 cm;
  • IV – with very long internodes 16-25 cm.

A subtype with very long internodes is characteristic of Soviet varieties of fine-staple cotton.

The length of the internodes of fruit branches is an important varietal trait that determines the total length of the branches, the degree of spreading or compactness of the bush. The longer the internodes, the longer the branches and spreading of the bush and, conversely, the shorter the internodes, the shorter the branches and the more compact the bush. The large spreading of the bush creates some difficulties in inter-row tillage and harvesting.

In the USSR, forms of cotton with an unsaturated type of fruit branches were usually grown. Cotton with a marginal type of branches is considered to be less productive and produces fiber of a slightly worse quality.

In the axils of the leaves of monopodial branches, branches of the second order can form, and, just like on the main stem: in the axils of the first 2-3 leaves, the branches usually do not form, and the buds remain dormant here. Monopodia can form from the axils of the next 2-3 leaves, and only sympodia can form from the axils of the next leaves. Thus, in its development, the monopodial branch, as it were, repeats the development of the main stem.

The later the cotton plant is, the more often it forms monopodial branches of the second order. In early ripening varieties, only sympodia are usually formed as branches of the second order on monopodial branches. The total number of fruit branches on the stem is 16-18.


Leaves vary in size and shape on the same plant. The first 2-3 leaves developing on the main stem are whole, extreme, heart-shaped. The rest of the leaves on this stem and branches are lobed. The number of leaf lobes varies in different varieties and varies from 3 to 7.

On the main stem and on the growth branches, the leaves are located at each node, while on the fruiting branches – opposite each bud.


The flower is large, consists of five petals fused at the base, yellow, cream or white, depending on the variety. At the base of the petals of some types of cotton, for example, Peruvian or goose, there is a raspberry-red spot.

Stigma 3-5-lobed, large. There are many stamens. Anthers yellow, cream or orange. Calyx green, underdeveloped.

The flower has three large bracts.

Mainly self-pollinator. Cross-pollination is rare.


The fruit is a round-ovoid capsule. The size of the box depends on the number of flaps (nests), which can be 3-5. In one nest there can be from 5 to 10 seeds, in one box – 25-40 seeds.

When ripe, the box cracks at the seams, and the valves in most species open, while raw cotton is exposed, which consists of seeds covered with long (fiber) and short (down) hairs.

The mass of dry raw material in one mature box is from (2) 5 to 8 (10) g and depends on the variety and growing conditions. The mass of raw cotton accounts for 30-40%, for downs (linter) – 0.2-1.5%. Strong, well-developed bushes can produce over 100 open boxes. Opening stops at frosts of -3…-4 °C, which usually occur in the main cotton-growing regions at the end of October.


Seeds are ovoid, with a very large number of fibers – up to 7-15 thousand, 9-12 mm long, 6-8 mm wide. After removing the fibers from the seeds, they are left with a downy layer of short fibers. It accounts for 3-4% of the mass of seeds.

The seeds are covered with two shells: outer (peel) – lignified dark brown and inner – membranous. The kernel (without shell) consists of two cotyledons, rudiments of root and stalk.

Weight of 1000 seeds (80) 90-150 (160) g.

Types of cotton

The genus Cotton (Gossypium) includes 35 species, of which 5 are cultivated and 30 are wild, in addition, the genus has many forms and varieties. Two types were cultivated in the USSR:

  • ordinary cotton, or Mexican (medium fiber), – Gossypium hirsutum L .;
  • cotton Peruvian, or Egyptian (fine-fibered), – Gossypium peruvianum Gav. (Gossypium barbadense L.).

Herbaceous cotton (guza) – Gossypium herbaceum L. – is considered unproductive and was not grown in the USSR.

Tree-like cotton, or Indochinese – Gossypium arboreum L. and three-pointed cotton – Gossypium tricuspidatum Lam. – cultivated in tropical regions.

Cotton ordinary (medium fiber)

Cotton ordinary (medium fiber) comes from Mexico.

In culture, this semi-shrub reaches a height of 1-1.5 m. The stem is strong with developed branches, which are pubescent with one tier of hairs.

Leaves 3-5-lobed. The blades are medium, shortened triangular.

The flowers are yellow, medium in size, there is no spot on the petals of the corolla, they open well.

The boll is round, large, with a beak at the top, 4-5-leaf (3-5 nested), the surface is smooth, when ripe it opens wide, 5-11 seeds in each nest.

Seeds are covered with down, consisting of dense short hairs. The fiber is white, 30-35 mm long, 17-20 microns thick. Fiber yield 35-38 (40)%. The fiber quality is high. Metric number 4200-5500.

Cotton is the most widespread species in all cotton-growing countries. Most of the cultivated varieties belong to this species and are characterized by precocity and cold resistance.

Peruvian cotton (fine fiber)

Peruvian cotton (fine fiber) comes from Peru.

It is a semi-shrub with a height of 1 to 3 m with a large number of long, hairless branches.

The leaves are 3-5-lobed, the lobes are elongated-triangular in shape.

The flowers are large, creamy, have a crimson-red spot on the petals of the corolla.

The boll is cone-shaped, large (but smaller than that of medium fiber cotton), with an elongated top, the surface is finely pitted, when ripe it opens wide, 3-4-leaf, 5-8 seeds per nest.

Seeds are almost bare, there are almost no downs. Fiber yield 31-34%. The fiber is strong, long 39-41 mm, of the highest quality, 12-18 microns thick, metric number 6000-7500, silky, has high spinning qualities.

Fine-staple cotton is characterized by a longer growing season and high heat requirements, so its varieties are grown in the warmest countries and regions.

Technological properties of cotton fiber

Cotton fiber is an elongated cell of the epidermis of the peel, slightly twisted, curving and covered with a thin layer of wax, which gives the fiber a shine. The ratio of cell thickness to its length is 1: 1500-2000. There is a cavity inside the fiber. Usually the fiber is white, in some varieties it can be cream, greenish or brown.

The fibers of the seed down are also formed from the cells of the outer epidermis of the peel, but their length is much less.

After cracking the boxes, the fibers dry quickly, as if flattened, while acquiring the shape of a ribbon. At the same time, they twist, become spirally twisted. Sometimes there are overripe fibers with thick walls. When dried, such fibers do not twist and remain rounded in cross section. In immature or immature fibers, when dried, the walls are easily flattened, but their crimp is weak, under a microscope they look like flat ribbons. Such abnormally developed fibers are called “dead fibers” in the textile industry.

In a well-developed box, not only abnormally developed fibers can be present, but also whole voles, that is, seeds with fibers sitting on it, which are formed due to the infertility of some ovary ovules. The fiber of the fly begins to form on the day of flowering, before fertilization. But the development of unfertilized ovules and the fibers that have begun to develop on them quickly stops, and they die off. Dead ovules, when dried, are nodules with short fibers, they are called small auks.

In addition to the small uluk, when the fertilized ovules die in the phase of a more or less developed embryo, a large uluk, that is, an underdeveloped volulet, can form.

The formation of small and large uluk occurs primarily due to improper nutrition of the plant and its individual parts. Most often this is due to the low level of agricultural technology and cotton diseases, especially wilt.

Increased volatility of raw cotton is usually noted in the first cone and peripheral cones, starting from the 4th-5th. Within one box, lucidity is observed at its base and in the lower parts of the lobules.

The formation of uluk leads to a decrease in the yield of raw cotton and loss of fiber quality. In different varieties of cotton, the mass of uluk varies from 0.7 to 1.2%.

Technological characteristics

The quality of cotton fiber is characterized by various technological characteristics, the main of which are the following:

  • fiber yield;
  • fiber length;
  • average breaking load (fiber strength);
  • linear density (metric number);
  • breaking length;
  • fiber maturity.

Technological characteristics (properties) of the fiber determine the quality of fabrics made from it. The thinner, stronger and longer the fiber, the more valuable it is, and the higher the quality of the fabrics produced from it.

The yield of fiber is the ratio of the mass of the fiber to the mass of the raw cotton from which it is obtained and expressed as a percentage. The yield of fiber depends on the growing conditions and the location of the bolls in different tiers of the cotton bush. The output of fiber from the boxes of the lower tiers is 2-4% more than from the upper tiers.

Fiber length – the distance between the ends of the fiber in the straightened state. Expressed in millimeters.

The average breaking load (strength) of the fiber is the maximum force that the sample can withstand before breaking. It is expressed in newtons (N) or gram-forces (gs). Characterizes the amount of load that one fiber can withstand before breaking. The average breaking load of the fiber depends on the grade and is usually 0.004-0.006 N or, respectively, 4-6 gf.

The linear density (metric number) of the fiber indirectly characterizes the fineness of the cotton fiber. It corresponds to the total length of all fibers in 1 g of fiber. Expressed in meters. So, for grade 108-f, the metric number is 5550, which means: the length of all fibers of 1 g of fiber is 5550 m. The greater the linear density of the fiber, the thinner it is. The metric number of fiber of different grades varies from 5000 to 8000.

The breaking length of the fiber is a complex indicator equal to the product of the strength of the fiber and its metric number. For example, with a fiber strength of 0.0049 N (4.9 gf) with a metric number of 5200 m, its breaking length will be 25,480 m (5200 m x 4.9 gf), or 25.48 km. The breaking length is expressed in kilometers. Physically, the characteristic is the length of such an imaginary fiber, which is torn under the action of its mass. The greater this characteristic, the stronger the fibers, and, accordingly, the yarn.

The maturity of the fiber reflects the filling of the fibers with cellulose. The characteristic is determined by the thickening of the walls and the reduction of the channel. An increase in maturity leads to a change in the basic properties of the fiber: its strength, linear strength (thickness) and the degree of dyeing increase.

Technological properties of cotton fiber differ on the same bush. Thus, the fiber yield decreases from the first bolls to the next. In the box itself, in each lobule, medium bats have a longer and stronger fiber. The fibers also vary within the bat. The longest fibers are located on the chalase of the seed, while the short ones are located at the micropyle end. The degree of fiber maturity decreases from micropyle to chalase.

For industrial use, a fiber that is more uniform in terms of technological characteristics is important.

The technological properties of the fiber depend on the hereditary characteristics of the varieties, soil and climatic conditions and cultivation methods. The most variable is the length of the fiber, which changes, for example, from irrigation and fertilization.

Types of cotton fiber

The Central Research Institute of the Cotton Industry was proposed to conditionally divide the entire range of cotton fiber into seven types, for each of which the approximate demand of the cotton industry (USSR) was established.

Fiber types I, II and III are obtained from varieties of fine-staple cotton. These varieties are late ripening and are cultivated only in the southern regions of the countries of Central Asia on relatively small areas (10% of all cotton crops). From the fiber of these varieties, especially thin and strong fabrics are obtained – satin, batiste and high-quality knitwear.

Fiber IV, V, VI and VII types are produced from varieties of medium staple cotton. These varieties are characterized by greater precocity and yield. They account for about 90% of all cotton sown areas. Type IV fiber is similar in quality to type III. It is used for the production of thread, voile and other fabrics. Type V fiber (basic) is used to produce the most common fabrics – linen, dress, lining and others. Suit and fleece fabrics are made from type VI fiber, they are also mixed with wool. Type VII fiber is not planned, as its quality does not meet the requirements.

Table. Types of cotton fiber[1]Crop production/P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and textbooks for … Continue reading


Biological features

Temperature requirements

Cotton seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 10-12 °C, but the optimum temperature is considered to be 20-25 °C. Even small frosts down to -0.5 … -1 °C lead to the death of seedlings. The minimum temperature required for the emergence of cotton seedlings is 14-15 °C, for the formation of generative organs and flowering – 20 °C.

The optimum temperature for plant development is 25 °C. A higher need for plants in heat up to 26-30 °C falls on the period of flowering and budding.

Lowering the temperature below 10-12 °C results in a short or unripened cotton fiber.

The sum of active temperatures for early-ripening varieties of cotton is 3000 °C, mid-ripening – 3400 °C, late-ripening – 4000 °C.

Moisture requirements

Cotton is considered a relatively drought-resistant plant.

Due to the deep penetrating root system, plants make good use of the water of the subsoil layers.

Cotton can be grown in areas with an annual rainfall of 350-400 mm, but under these conditions the yield is very low.

Transpiration coefficient (400) 500-600 (800).

The greatest need for moisture falls on the period of flowering – fruit formation.

Higher air humidity contributes to the production of a long and thin fiber.

It responds very well to irrigation, while the yield increases sharply. In the conditions of the USSR, cotton was cultivated only with irrigation. To obtain good yields, cotton crops must be provided with 5-8 thousand m3/ha of water.

Soil requirements

In the countries of Central Asia and Transcaucasia, cotton is cultivated on soils characteristic of these regions: sierozems, sierozem-meadow and meadow-marsh. Light fertile soils with a pH of 7-8 are considered optimal.

Fields with a close occurrence of groundwater and with high acidity of the soil are of little use.

Cotton is able to tolerate slight salinity, especially towards the end of the growing season.

Light requirements

Cotton is a light-loving plant with a short day, so the orientation of the leaf blades changes during the day: during the day the blades are facing the sun, at night they fall in the shade.

Scattered light leads to a delay in the development of plants and an increase in the vegetative mass.

Direct and too bright light, together with exposure to high temperature and dry air, often reduces assimilation.


In cotton, the following vegetation phases are distinguished:

  • seedlings;
  • budding;
  • bloom;
  • maturation.

Seed germination begins with the absorption of 70-80% of their mass. First, the root starts to grow, then the curved hypocotyl knee of the stem, which brings the cotyledons to the surface of the soil.

Cotyledons appear on the soil surface under favorable conditions 5-6 days after sowing, and 8-10 days after that the first true leaf is formed. Each subsequent leaf appears after 3-5 days.

When 7-8 true leaves are formed in the axil of the 4-5 (6)-th leaf or slightly higher, the first fruit branch with a bud is formed. This moment is considered to be the beginning of the budding phase. From the moment the first leaf appears to the beginning of budding, (20) 25-30 days pass.

The formation of buds on a bush occurs in two directions: along the fruit branch (horizontally) and upward in a spiral.

In accordance with the timing of the formation of buds, flowering also takes place. The period from the development of the first bud to the opening of the first flower is 25-35 days, by this time 9-10 fruit branches are formed.

It has been established that higher yields of raw cotton can be obtained with early flowering and fruit formation.

Flowers open in the morning. The petals of the corolla at this time have a light yellow color. In the afternoon, the corolla turns red, and in the evening, withering, it closes. The next day, the corolla turns purple and falls off.

The opening of flowers in the bush occurs from the bottom up, in groups or cones. The first cone includes the first three flowers, which are located on the three lower branches closer to the stem. The second cone consists of the second flowers of the first three branches and the first flowers on the 4th, 5th and 6th branches. The third cone consists of flowers of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd branches, the second flowers of the 4th, 5th and 6th branches and the first flowers of the 7th, 8th and 9th branches, etc.

Cotton flowering scheme
Cotton flowering scheme: Roman numerals show the numbering of flowering cones, Arabic - the numbering of branches.

Flowering in an ascending line, that is, from branch to branch, occurs at intervals of approximately 2-3 days (short queue), while along the same branch – at intervals of 5-7 days (long queue). The duration of short and long flowering lines depends on the varietal characteristics of cotton, growing temperature, agricultural technology, etc.

The period from the flowering phase to the opening of the boxes is (45) 50-65 days. The external formation of the box ends 25-35 days after fertilization, but for the maturation of seeds and the formation of fiber, another 25-30 days are needed, during which nutrients are reutilized from the vegetative organs of the plant.

The opening of boxes on one bush often stretches up to 2 months. Clear and warm weather accelerates this phase and, conversely, cool weather slows it down.

The entire period from sowing to the opening of the first box, that is, the beginning of the ripening phase, is:

  • for Soviet varieties of medium staple cotton – 130-140 days;
  • for Soviet varieties of fine-staple cotton – 145-160 days.

The duration of interphase periods for the most common group of mid-ripening varieties is (Vavilov):

  • from sowing to germination 14-16 days;
  • from germination to the beginning of the formation of the basket 37-43 days;
  • from the beginning of the formation of the basket to flowering 27-30 days (according to other sources, 50-60 days after germination, Kolomeichenko);
  • from flowering to ripening 44-50 days.

The total duration of vegetation for this group of sunflower varieties is 120-140 days. Depending on the variety or hybrid and growing conditions, seeds may ripen in (70) 80-120 (140) days after germination.

In the first period of its development (2-3 pairs of leaves), sunflower plants develop relatively slowly. At this time, they are easily drowned out by weeds . However, then the growth accelerates and reaches its maximum, which is 3-5 cm per day, in the period from the formation of the basket to the beginning of flowering. In the flowering phase, growth in height slows down and stops completely by the end of flowering.

The beginning of the formation of the basket in early maturing varieties of sunflower in the conditions of the South-East of Russia falls on 2 pairs of leaves, in mid-season – at 3-5 pairs. The laying of the basket in mid-season varieties begins in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory with 5 pairs of leaves.

Flowering of one basket lasts 8-10 days, and growth – until it turns yellow. The basket grows most intensively within 8-10 days after the end of flowering. The filling of achenes lasts for 32-42 days from the time of their fertilization.

Simultaneously with the growth of the plant in height and the formation of a basket, dry matter begins to accumulate. During this period, this process is slow, and by the beginning of the formation of the basket, sunflower accumulates only 15% of dry matter. By the beginning of the flowering phase, the amount of dry matter in the plant reaches 50%, and it continues to increase until the beginning of the filling of seeds, but is also spent mainly on the formation of the basket.

Physiological ripening of achenes after harvesting can be 10-50 days.

Crop rotation

Cotton-alfalfa crop rotations are widespread in cotton-growing regions. The main ones are 8-, 9- and 10-field, in which 2-3 fields are occupied by alfalfa and 5-7 fields by cotton. The share of cotton in cotton-alfalfa crop rotations accounts for 60-70%.

For cotton-alfalfa crop rotations, the designation is accepted by numbers, for example, 2:5, 2:6, 3:7, etc., the first digit in which means the number of alfalfa fields, the second – cotton.

Depending on soil conditions, the following crop rotation schemes are recommended:

  • non-saline dark typical serozems and meadow soils – 3:9, 3:7, 2:8;
  • uninhabited and slightly saline light gray soils and meadow soils – 3:7, 3:6, 2:7;
  • moderately saline gray soils and meadow soils – 3:6;
  • lands subject to severe salinization – 3:5:1, 3:6:1, where 1 denotes an reclamation field.

In the first field of cotton-alfalfa crop rotations, alfalfa is usually sown under the cover of cereal crops (barley) or together with corn, jugar or Sudanese grass for silage. In the second and third years, alfalfa grows as a single crop, and after plowing, cotton is sown, which occupies the field for 6-7 years in a row.

In diagrams 3:5:1 and 3:6:1, the last field, marked 1, is ameliorative. Before sowing alfalfa, leveling, washing, etc. are carried out on it.

Alfalfa is important as a precursor to cotton in soils subject to salinity. Due to the well-developed above-ground mass, it shades the soil surface, significantly reducing the evaporation of moisture and thereby preventing the movement of salts from the lower layers of the soil to the upper ones. When irrigated, large amounts of salt are washed into deeper horizons.

Alfalfa is also of great importance in wilt-infested fields. The causative agents of the disease do not develop on the roots of alfalfa and for the most part die without finding the substrate they need. According to the data of experimental institutions, when using cotton varieties with low resistance to wilt, their susceptibility in the first 3 years after plowing alfalfa is no more than 20-35%, while when sown on old arable land, the same varieties of cotton already in the first year are more than 90% afflicted with wilt.

Alfalfa helps to improve the physical properties of the soil, reduces subsequent water consumption for irrigation and activates the activity of soil microflora. Alfalfa of the third year of use leaves up to 15-18 t/ha of organic matter.

Other crop rotations can be used, which are developed taking into account the intensification of cotton growing and more efficient use of irrigated land. In addition to alfalfa, sorghum, corn, legumes (mung bean, peas, soybeans, sweet clover) can be good cotton precursors.

Sowing green manure crops, such as rape, mustard, vetch, peas, etc., is important for increasing soil fertility and productivity. Sowing green manure is carried out after harvesting corn or under cotton in the 4-6th year after plowing alfalfa.

The use of cotton monoculture, which is practiced in some countries, is not recommended, as this is associated with a large annual removal of nutrients from the soil and adverse mechanical effects associated with multiple irrigations and inter-row treatments. With permanent cotton crops, fertility decreases, the arable layer is sprayed, the concentration of harmful salts increases and the level of groundwater rises, the structure and phytosanitary condition of soils deteriorate.

Cotton can be grown in one place of crop rotation for 4-7 years in a row only in case of systematic fertilization, systematic control of weeds, pests and diseases.

Cotton crop rotations

Cotton occupies large areas in areas where irrigated agriculture is used, in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian countries. To increase the share of cotton in special crop rotations, repeated crops are introduced for 3-4 or more years in a row.

In the Central Asian countries, nine- and ten-field cotton-alfalfa crop rotations are used. On cultivated highly fertile soils, the following alternation schemes have been introduced:

  • 1-2 – alfalfa, 4-10 – cotton;
  • 1-2 – alfalfa, 3-6 – cotton, 7 – corn for grain, 8-10 – cotton;
  • 1 – alfalfa, 2-4 – cotton, 5 – corn for grain, 6-10 – cotton.

In these crop rotations, cotton accounts for 70, 75 and 80% of the area.

On poorly cultivated, but relatively fertile, for example, slightly and moderately saline soils, cotton crop rotations are recommended:

  • 1-2 – alfalfa, 3-6 – cotton, 7 – corn for grain, 8-10 – cotton;
  • 1-2 – alfalfa, 3-6 – cotton, corn for grain with stubble sowing of rapeseed or green manure, 8-10 – cotton;
  • 1-3 – alfalfa, 4-7 – cotton, 8 – corn for grain, 9-10 – cotton. In these crop rotations, cotton occupies 75%, 70% and 66.7%, respectively.

To improve the efficiency of cotton-alfalfa crop rotations, alfalfa crops are combined with Sudanese grass or corn, autumn and winter intermediate crops are introduced, harvested in spring for green fodder or plowed under cotton. The best intermediate crops are winter vetch, winter barley or rye, wintering peas, shabdar, mustard, rapeseed, etc.

Intermediate crops, as a rule, are used for 3-5 years of cotton cultivation, after alfalfa plowing.

It should be noted that in the countries of Central Asia, when growing cotton in a crop rotation to produce 100 kg of raw cotton, 24% less labor is spent than with permanent cultivation, fertilizers – 34% less, irrigation water – 20% less.

Fertilizer system

Cotton is one of the crops that consume a large amount of nutrients. For the formation of 100 kg of raw cotton with good development of plants, cotton consumes 5 kg of nitrogen, 1.7 kg of phosphorus and 5 kg of potassium.

Providing cotton plants with an optimal nutritional regimen can reduce the growing season by 5-10 days, increase yields and plant resistance to diseases. The lack of nutrients in the initial phases leads to a slowdown in the development of the root system, the fall of buds and ovaries. Lack of nutrition in the later phases of the growing season reduces the rate of formation of fruit branches, buds and delays flowering.

Absorption of nutrients during the growing season is uneven:

  • before budding, 3-5% of nitrogen and phosphorus are consumed from the total amount of these substances needed throughout the growing season, and 2-3% of potassium;
  • from the beginning of budding to flowering – 25-30% nitrogen and phosphorus, up to 15-20% potassium;
  • during flowering and fruit formation, which coincide with the most intensive plant growth, – 65-70% nitrogen and phosphorus, 75-80% potassium.

In the first phases of development, plants are most sensitive to phosphorus deficiency.

Intensive growing technologies involve providing cotton with an optimal nutritional regime during the growing season and increasing the efficiency of applying mineral fertilizers.

The fertilizer system includes the application of organic and mineral fertilizers. However, it should be taken into account that cotton, which is placed in the crop rotation after plowing alfalfa, makes good use of the nutrients accumulated by it and experiences less need for organic fertilizers than cotton, which is grown in fields more distant in time from alfalfa. As a rule, within 2-3 years after alfalfa, organic fertilizers are not used for cotton, but mineral fertilizers are applied.

The use of green fertilizers is important. After harvesting corn, intermediate crops can be sown, for example, peas, the green mass of which is plowed up in autumn.

The norms and methods of applying mineral fertilizers depend on the type of soil, the form of fertilizer and the placement of cotton in the crop rotation. In cotton-alfalfa crop rotations on gray soils in the first two years after plowing alfalfa, nitrogen fertilizers, as a rule, are applied in smaller quantities than phosphorus ones. The ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in the annual norm of mineral fertilizers is 1:1.3 or 1:1.5. In subsequent years, for cotton in the same fields, the application rates of nitrogen fertilizers are increased, the ratio between nitrogen and phosphorus is set to 1 : 0.8. This ratio reduces the incidence of cotton wilt. In addition, it is favorable for cotton with an increase in nitrogen doses up to 240-300 kg/ha.

On meadow and meadow-marsh soils with a high nitrogen content, it is advisable to set the ratio N:P 1:1.5.

The norms recommended by SoyuzNIHI for applying mineral fertilizers for cotton on gray soils with a planned yield of raw cotton of 3.5-4.0 t/ha are N 270-300, P 190-210, K 120 kg/ha. In the third year after plowing alfalfa into cotton fields for autumn plowing, it is recommended to apply at least 10-15 t/ha of manure.

With industrial cultivation technology, fractional fertilization is recommended:

  • under deep plowing;
  • before sowing;
  • when sowing;
  • during the growing season.

When distributing fertilizers according to the timing of application, it is necessary to take into account the supply of nutrients to plants during the growing season. 25% of the total rate of nitrogen fertilizers should be applied before sowing and 75% – at sowing and in top dressing. With two top dressings, nitrogen is introduced in the phases of the beginning of budding and the beginning of flowering, with three, it is additionally applied in the phase of 3-4 true leaves.

At the first (early) top dressing, fertilizers are applied at a distance of 15-16 cm from the row to a depth of 12-14 cm. When top dressing in the budding phase – at a distance of 20-22 cm from the row to a depth of 3-4 cm below the bottom of the furrow. The third dressing is applied in the middle of the row spacing.

For fertilization, cultivators-plant feeders КРХ-4 are used with row spacing of 60 cm or cultivators-plant feeders КРХ-3.6 with row spacing of 90 cm.

When using increased nitrogen rates, approximately 1/3 of them are applied before sowing, the rest is used as top dressing during the budding and flowering period.

Lack of nitrogen leads to poor plant development and greater wilt damage.

Phosphorus is recommended to be applied for plowing at the rate of 60-70% of the annual norm, the rest of the amount – simultaneously with sowing and in top dressing.

A good effect is given by row application when sowing granulated superphosphate in the amount of 15-20 kg/ha P2O5. Phosphate fertilizers are added to top dressing together with nitrogen fertilizers in the cotton budding phase.

Potash fertilizers are more effective on light and non-saline soils with a high standing water table. The recommended rate is 80-100 kg/ha of K2O. Potash fertilizers are usually applied in equal proportions for plowing and top dressing, which are also carried out at the beginning of budding.

It should be borne in mind that the intensive use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers increases the need for cotton in potassium nutrition. A lack of potassium leads to a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in plants, the conditions for the formation of bolls worsen, especially the outer cones of flowering, the main one becomes thinner and prone to lodging. In addition, the technological properties of the fiber are significantly reduced: metric number, strength and maturity.

According to the experimental data of SoyuzNIKhI, the most optimal ratio of nitrogen and potassium is 1:0.5. With the introduction of increased norms of nitrogen and in areas infected with wilt, the ratio shifts to 1:0.7 and even up to 1:1.

Potash fertilizers are a necessary component of fertilizer mixtures for all types of soils, except for saline ones, in which the potassium content is quite high, and with a planned raw cotton yield of more than 2.5 t/ha.

Sulfur, calcium and magnesium are important in the development of cotton.

The lack of sulfur, especially on alkaline soils, leads to stunting of plants, the leaves become yellow in color. A good result is the introduction of ammonium sulfate in the initial period of plant development.

The soils of the main cotton-growing regions of the countries of Central Asia, as a rule, contain a sufficient amount of calcium and magnesium. For these areas, the introduction of microfertilizers is effective: boron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum or, accordingly, macrofertilizers enriched with these microelements. Microfertilizers are applied directly to the soil or used to soak seeds. In the latter case, the concentration of microelement salts in the soaking solution should be 0.02-0.04%, and the ratio of seeds and solution should be 2:1, soaking time should be 12 hours. basic fertilizers.

For gray soils, it is recommended to apply 0.5-1 kg/ha of a.i. boron, for meadow-marsh soils – 1.5-2 kg/ha.

Recommended norms of manganese – no more than 18 kg/ha, copper – 2-3 kg/ha, zinc – 3-4 kg/ha. Molybdenum is added as part of molybdenized superphosphate.

Tillage system

Autumn tillage for cotton depends on the predecessor.

When placing cotton after alfalfa, plowing is carried out in the second half of October with plows with skimmers to a depth of at least 28-30 cm. Before plowing, peeling is performed to a depth of 5-6 cm to cut the roots of alfalfa and prevent its growth in spring.

In fields littered with pigs (Cynodon), huma (Sorghum halepense), sytsia (Cyperus) and other rhizomatous weeds, after harvesting, guza-pai loosen the soil to a depth of 16-18 cm with plows with removed mouldboards, combing the rhizomes of weeds with mounted harrows, or chisels. Combed rhizomes are removed from the field. Before loosening, heavily dried soils are watered with a water flow rate of 600-800 m3/ha.

When placing cotton after cotton, the field is first freed from stems (guza-pai) and the irrigation furrows are leveled. Uprooting should be completed no later than the first decade of November. The uprooted stems are removed from the field. Especially thorough harvesting of goose-pai should be carried out in fields infected with wilt. In fields not charged with wilt, cotton stalks can be chopped and plowed.

When placing cotton after grain crops, after harvesting, fine stubble peeling is carried out to a depth of 5-8 cm, for better weed germination, it is recommended to carry out pre-arable watering. After the appearance of weeds, surface tillage is carried out. The optimal time for autumn plowing is August-September.

When stubble crops of annual crops are harvested, watering is done, after which deep plowing is carried out with plows with skimmers.

Two-tier plowing to a depth of 30-40 cm on fertile soils and combined plowing with soil deepening, in which a 20-25-cm soil layer is cultivated with a layer turnover, and the lower one is loosened (on saline lands with a compacted subarable horizon), have proven themselves well. In this case, when placing cotton after alfalfa, peeling is also carried out before plowing. For two-tier and combined processing, a ПД-4-35 plow is used.

Early spring and pre-sowing tillage differ depending on the state of arable land in each area. As a rule, tillage in the spring begins with two-track harrowing of the fallow in one pass of the tractor. However, in fields where leaching irrigation was carried out, harrowing in early spring may be ineffective due to the strong compaction of the topsoil. Instead of harrowing on such soils, chiselling or disking is carried out with simultaneous harrowing.

For 5-10 days or immediately before sowing on non-saline soils, harrowing is carried out with thinning. On fields clear of weeds, it can be limited to leveling the surface with the help of a planner or small, on medium and heavily weedy lands – cultivators or chisels with flat-cutting working bodies coupled with harrows and small.


To meet the demand of cotton for water, the soil moisture in the root layer should be more than 65-70% of lowest soil moisture capacity, which is achieved by the use of irrigation. When soil moisture is less than 65% of lowest soil moisture capacity, the yield decreases, while at moisture content above 80% of lowest soil moisture capacity, branches grow.

Irrigations are spare (moisture charging, in some cases they are also flushing) and vegetative. Spare irrigation improves the physical condition of the soil, helps remove harmful salts from the upper layers of the soil, creates a moisture reserve for the normal development of cotton, and helps reduce the number of pests.

Spare, or water-charging, irrigation in the autumn-winter period serves to accumulate moisture in the soil, ensure seed germination and the emergence of cotton seedlings. They are carried out after harvesting cotton along furrows, strips and large checks. Also, watering is carried out in the winter, before the onset of severe frosts. For these purposes, furrows are cut along which water moistens the soil. On light soils and with deep groundwater, spare irrigation is done in early spring.

The reserve irrigation rate in winter is 1000-1500 m3/ha, spring – 800-900 m3/ha. On saline soils, reserve irrigations are also leaching, the irrigation rate in this case reaches 3000 m3/ha.

In spring, to preserve moisture, harrowing is carried out in 1-2 tracks or continuous chiselling is used to a depth of 6-8 cm.

Vegetative irrigation is done during the growing season of cotton: before the flowering phase, during flowering and during the ripening period. For example, two waterings are carried out – before flowering, three or four – during flowering, and one – during the ripening period. Such distribution of irrigations is conditionally designated 2-3-1 or 2-4-1 and is called the irrigation scheme. Also, irrigation can be carried out with a decrease in soil moisture to 65-75% of lowest soil moisture capacity for a stable supply of plants with water.

The total number of vegetative irrigations, depending on the type of soil and the occurrence of groundwater, ranges from 2 to 12. Based on numerous studies, SoyuzNIHI developed approximate irrigation norms for medium-fiber cotton varieties on old arable lands.

Table. Irrigation rates for medium staple cotton varieties[2]Crop production/P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and textbooks for … Continue reading

before flowering
during the flowering period
when ripe
Thin soils with close occurrence of pebbles and sand and deep groundwater
Gray soils with groundwater at a depth of 3–4 m or more
Gray-meadow soils with groundwater at a depth of 2–3 m
Meadow soils with groundwater at a depth of 1–2 m
Meadow-marsh soils with groundwater at a depth of up to 1 m

For old-arable fields with deep groundwater during furrow irrigation, the following norms are recommended.

Table. Irrigation rates for medium fiber varieties of cotton (SoyuzNIKhI)[3]Crop production/P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 512 p.: ill. - (Textbook and textbooks for … Continue reading

before flowering
during the flowering period
when ripe

On heavy soils, watering rates are increased, but watering is carried out less frequently.

The irrigation rate for plowed alfalfa is increased by 100-300 m3/ha.

Starting cotton irrigation too early is not recommended. With early and frequent watering, its root system develops in the upper horizons of the soil and therefore does not adequately supply water to the above-ground part of the plants during flowering and maturation. In addition, excess moisture in the early growing season contributes to the abundant development of the vegetative mass at the expense of generative organs.

However, it is important to carry out the first watering in a timely manner, as a delay can greatly delay the development of cotton plants. Depending on the condition of the soil and seedlings, the first watering is carried out 2-3 weeks after emergence. To ensure good growth of cotton, about 2-3 waterings should be carried out before flowering (by early June). Intensive watering in August and September promotes intensive growth of vegetative organs, which leads to a delay in the maturation of bolls.

The timing of irrigation is determined by the state of the plants: before flowering – by the darkening of the leaves and their slight wilting at noon, while during the flowering period – by the position of the upper flower. Properly watered cotton at the beginning of flowering has 8-9 fruit non-flowering branches above the last flower, at the end of July – 6-7 branches, at the end of August – no more than 4. However, the most objective indicator of establishing the timing of irrigation is soil moisture, which should not fall below 70% of lowest soil moisture capacity. In addition, a method has been developed for determining the timing of irrigation according to physiological indicators: the sucking power of cells and the concentration of cell sap.

Usually cotton is irrigated along the furrows. Furrows for the first irrigation are cut to a depth of 16-18 cm, for subsequent irrigation – up to 20 cm. The length of the furrows is determined depending on the permeability of the soil and the slope of the bottom of the furrow. With medium slopes (from 0.001 to 0.005) and low water permeability of the soil, furrows are made 120-150 m long, with an average – 100-120, with strong water permeability – 90-100 m. The strength of the water jet with small slopes should be up to 1-1, 2 l/s, for large – 0.1-0.3 l/s. For furrow irrigation, flexible polyethylene siphon tubes are usually used.

When using industrial technology for cultivating cotton for irrigation, instead of cutting furrows, rigid and semi-rigid polyethylene irrigation pipelines, flexible hoses, siphon tubes, machines of the ППА-165У type or sprinklers (ДДА-100М, Volzhanka, Fregat, etc.) .

When using pipelines, water is supplied to the fields through concrete trays, fixed at a certain height above the soil surface to provide water pressure. Water is taken into pipelines with the help of hydrants. The use of pipelines and sprinkler systems allows you to ration the water supply, use it economically and automate the irrigation process.

The sprinkling method allows to reduce water consumption by 2-4 times, while there is no need to cut furrows and level the field. In addition, sprinklers allow spraying of plants to control pests and diseases.

Subsoil irrigation is carried out using porous pipes or perforated hoses, which are placed at a depth of 40-50 cm in rows of 1-1.5 m. During the growing season, water pressure is maintained in them, thereby ensuring sufficient soil moisture.

The combination of furrow irrigation and sprinkler irrigation is economically more profitable than conventional furrow irrigation.


Seed preparation

For sowing, cotton seeds with a purity of at least 97% and a germination rate of at least 85% are used.

The seeds obtained from the raw material of the first opened bolls are considered the best in terms of sowing qualities. According to the experiments carried out in Uzbekistan, the field germination of seeds of the first harvest was 94%, while the last pre-frost harvest was less than 50%. So, when sowing seeds from bolls ripened on September 4-10, 3.9 t/ha of raw cotton was obtained, and from bolls ripened on September 29 – October 9 – 2.3 t/ha.

Raw cotton for seeds at ginneries is subjected to primary processing, including ginning, linting and deletion. In addition, the preparation of seed material includes calibration, dressing and pelleting in the presence of pubescence.

Ginning is the process of completely separating the fiber from the seeds. Lintering is the process of partially separating the down from the seeds. During ginning and linting, cotton seeds can be mechanically damaged.

Delintering is the process of completely removing the down from the seed. Delintering can be mechanical, chemical (impact on the seeds of acids) and aerochemical (exposure to gaseous reagents). The aerochemical method is the most interesting, since it does not damage the seeds and does not reduce their sowing qualities. In addition, under the action of gaseous reagents, the seeds are disinfected from gommosis and other diseases, thus eliminating the need for the use of chemical means of protection.

The Research Institute of Plant Protection (Tashkent) recommends coating bare and pubescent seeds, which consists in enveloping the seeds with a mixture of nutrients, protective and stimulating substances. Dragee seeds are more free-flowing and protected from diseases and rotting in the soil.

Hairy seeds can also be used for sowing. From gommosis and root rot, they are treated with 65% feptiuram at the rate of 10-12 kg/t of seeds. Before sowing, such seeds are moistened with water in three doses (600 l/t of seeds), for which they are scattered on a cemented site with a layer of 20-30 cm, moistened and shoveled 2-3 times with an interval of 4-5 hours. Moistened seeds are collected in heaps and covered with a tarpaulin or film for languishing. At early terms of sowing in moist soil, languor is completed in 8-12 hours, at later dates in 20-24 hours.

Bare seeds are sown dry.

It is not allowed to moisten pubescent pelleted seeds.

Sowing dates

Cotton sowing is started when the soil warms up at a depth of 10 cm to 12 (13) °C and the average air temperature (12) is 13-15 °C. As a rule, in the southern regions of cotton growing, such conditions are created in the third decade of March, in the middle regions – at the end of March – early April, in the northern regions – in the second decade of April.

Too early sowing of cotton leads to a lengthening of the growing season, while too late sowing – to a delay in the opening of the boxes and a decrease in the pre-frost harvest of raw cotton.

Sowing dates are recommended to be specified taking into account soil, hydrological and weather conditions. Sowing usually begins on light, well-warmed lands of the southern slopes. The duration of sowing is not recommended to stretch.

Seeding methods

When sowing pubescent seeds, ordinary (tape) or often nested sowing methods are used. Often preference is given to the wide-row sowing method, which allows for better warming of plants, a decrease in the incidence of wilt, facilitates inter-row cultivation, irrigation, mechanized harvesting, speeds up the ripening of boxes by 4-7 days, reduces labor costs and obtains an increase in yield up to 0.3-0.5 t/ha.

With the industrial technology of growing cotton, sowing is carried out with bare seeds with the exact sowing of a given number of seeds in each nest, thus obtaining a given plant density without thinning.

In cotton growing, the row spacing is usually 60 and 90 cm with distances between nests of 10-30 (60) cm. When using the dotted sowing method, seeds are sown every 10 cm, 1-2 per nest. Such a scheme provides the most uniform distribution of plants and a given density of standing – 100-150 thousand plants per 1 ha without thinning seedlings.

A relatively new method of sowing is sowing on removed ridges (ridge method). It is carried out with the help of a bed maker or hiller, with which furrows are cut and ridges 20-30 cm high are formed. With a special device – a comber – when sowing, the top dry layer of soil is removed and the seeds are planted in loose, moist, well-heated soil. This method allows you to get early and uniform shoots.

With industrial technology, sowing is carried out by 4-row seeders СТХ-4Г, equipped with a device for applying herbicides and sowing along the ridges. Seeders СХУ-4 and СХУ-8 are also used.

Seeding rates

The sowing rate of cotton seeds depends on the row spacing, nest placement patterns, the quality of the seed material, and the conditions during the sowing period. The norm varies from 35-40 kg/ha to 70-80 kg/ha (Vavilov). According to other recommendations, the seeding rate for bare seeds is 20-25 kg/ha, for pubescent seeds – 90-100 kg/ha.

To obtain a high yield of raw cotton, the plant density should be 100-110 thousand/ha, on thin and sandy soils – up to 130-150 thousand/ha.

The seeding rate is increased by 10-15% when sowing on fields infected with wilt, as well as on saline soils.

Seeding depth

On gray soils, the sowing depth is 4-5 cm, on meadow-marsh soils – 3-4 cm.

With early sowing in moist soil, the embedment depth should be 3-4 cm, and as the soil warms up and dries, the depth is increased to 4-5 cm.

Bare seeds are recommended to be sown 1 cm smaller than pubescent ones, but always in moist soil.

Crop care

Care for cotton sowing before germination consists in destroying the soil crust with the help of light harrows or rotary hoes.

When the topsoil dries up, it is recommended to carry out recharge irrigation with a consumption rate of 600 m3/ha. For its implementation, irrigation furrows are cut during sowing.

To ensure optimal plant density, thinning is carried out no later than the phase of formation of the first (second) true leaf. Depending on the agricultural technologies used, soil fertility, varietal characteristics and sowing method, the sowing density should be in the range from 70 to 160 thousand plants per 1 ha. When using precision seeding and under optimal conditions, a given planting density can be obtained without the use of thinning.

When shoots appear, inter-row tillage is started. Depending on the purpose of each treatment, various working bodies can be used on cultivators: shaving or flat-cutting paws, hillers, rotary sprockets, etc.

The first longitudinal cultivation is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm with simultaneous loosening of protective zones, the width of which during this period of plant development is 10-12 cm on each side of the row. The second cultivation is recommended to be done before the first vegetation watering. Subsequent cultivation – 2-3 days after each watering with some drying of the soil.

To loosen the row spacing, the extreme working bodies of the cultivators are set to a depth of 8-10 cm, the middle ones – by 12-15 cm. Starting from 2-3 cultivation, the width of the protective zones is increased to 16 cm.

The number of treatments between rows after irrigation is determined by the number of irrigations during the growing season and the onset of complete closure of cotton rows, which usually occurs in the second half of the flowering phase.

Weed control with the use of herbicides is of great importance in the care of cotton crops. Against annual weeds, a continuous pre-sowing application of treflan is used, followed by its incorporation by harrowing or disking. To apply the herbicide, sprayers of the type ОВХ-14 are used. The application rate of treflan is 4 kg/ha on light soils, 6 kg/ha on medium and heavy soils. The flow rate of the working fluid is 400 l/ha.

To control weeds in cotton rows during sowing, the herbicide Kotoran is applied in strips 20-30 cm wide at a rate of 0.8-1.75 kg/ha and a working solution flow rate of 200 l/ha. For these purposes, devices ПГС-2.45 or УГС-4 can be used, which are aggregated with cotton seeders.

The use of chemical control agents causes the death of 93-96% of weeds, accelerates the ripening of cotton and increases the collection of pre-frost raw cotton.

In the care of cotton crops, the chasing technique is important, which consists in removing the growth points of the main stem and monopodial branches. Chasing helps prevent the fall of buds and ovaries, as it creates more favorable conditions for nutrition and lighting for them. According to the experiments of SoyuzNIKhI, chasing cotton increases the yield of raw cotton up to 1.1 t/ha.

The efficiency of minting cotton depends on the duration. With too early terms of its implementation, the yield decreases. First of all, minting should be carried out from July 15 to July 25 in areas with a strong development of plants with the formation of 17-18 fruit branches on them. On medium-developed plants, chasing is carried out in the presence of 15-16 fruit branches no later than August 5. On underdeveloped plants – with the formation of 12-14 fruit branches no later than August 10 (Vavilov). According to other recommendations, minting should be carried out when 12-16 sympodial branches are formed on plants for medium-fiber varieties and 14-20 branches for fine-fiber varieties.

Chasing can be carried out using the 4ВХ-4 device, which is designed to cut the tops of cotton plants. It is hung on a tractor with a КРХ-4 cultivator.

Mechanized coinage is carried out in the second half of July – early August in two terms. The first minting begins when 40-50% of the plants have 15 or more fruit branches, the second – 7-10 days after the first. In the second pass, the tops of the plants lagging behind in growth and development are cut off. In this case, the knives of the device for chasing are set 3-5 cm higher than during the first chasing. Usually, chasing is recommended to be combined with cutting furrows for irrigation or loosening row spacings.

According to the calculations of research institutions, the costs of double mechanized chasing are 3.7 times less than those of manual chasing.

Wilt and Fusarium wilt are considered the most harmful diseases for cotton. To combat them, approved chemical plant protection products are used.


The maturation of cotton bolls does not occur simultaneously and lasts about two (three) months (until frost). Therefore, the harvesting of raw cotton is carried out as the bolls open: with mechanized harvesting – in three steps, two of which are using cotton pickers and one – chicken harvesters; with manual cleaning – in four steps.

The vertical-spindle cotton pickers developed in the Soviet era did not allow the harvesting of raw cotton from plants with a large number of green leaves. Therefore, the technology of mechanized harvesting of such crops involves defoliation before harvesting – the treatment of cotton with chemicals to quickly fall off the leaves.

As a defoliant, spraying with magnesium chlorate is used, in the calculation for medium-staple cotton – 8-12 kg/ha, fine-staple – 13-15 kg/ha. Instead of magnesium chlorate, calcium chlorate-chloride can be used, at a rate of 20-30 kg/ha.

Relatively new preparations include Hydrel, with a recommended application rate of 6-8 kg/ha for medium staple cotton or mixed with butyl-caitax in formulations from 3+3 kg/ha to 5+5 kg/ha. UDM-type defoliants are based on magnesium chlorate mixed with nitrogen fertilizers. Spraying of crops is carried out from airplanes or helicopters, when most plants open 2 bolls in the northern regions of cotton growing, 2-3 bolls in the central regions and 4-5 bolls in the southern regions (Vavilov). According to other recommendations, defoliation is recommended when opening 3-4 bolls on medium-staple cotton plants or 4-5 on fine-staple cotton (Kolomeichenko). Falling leaves after treatment occurs on the 8-10th day.

The use of the OVKh-28 ground sprayer makes it possible to reduce the negative impact of chemicals on the environment and increase the efficiency of defoliants.

With insufficient effect from defoliation, they resort to desiccation, that is, drying plants on the vine. As desiccants, magnesium chlorate is used at the rate of 25-30 kg/ha or calcium chlorate-chloride – 45-50 kg/ha. Desiccation makes it possible to speed up the maturation of the bolls remaining after the first collections in years with adverse weather conditions, as well as to clear headlands when using a mechanized harvesting method.

For harvesting raw cotton, two-row vertical-spindle cotton pickers ХВН-1.2А can be used on crops with a row spacing of 60 cm, ХНП-1.8 – on crops with a row spacing of 90 cm, four-row cotton pickers 14ХВ-2.4А on row spacings of 60 cm. harvesting of seed raw cotton, machines for tiered collection of seed raw cotton ХВА-1.2 (60 cm) or ХВБ-1.8 (90 cm) can be used.

To collect kurak, that is, boxes that have not opened after frost, they are carried out with chicken harvesters СКО-2.4 with row spacings of 60 cm or СКО-3.6 and СКО-5.4 with row spacings of 90 cm.

Mechanized harvesting of raw cotton is carried out in fields cleared of weeds and when 75-80% of the leaves of cotton plants fall off after defoliation. The collection is carried out in three stages:

  • the first harvest – by cotton-picking spindle machines when opening no more than 50-60% of the boxes;
  • the second collection – by the same machines when opening another 20-30 (35)% of the boxes, which usually occurs 12-15 days after the first collection;
  • the third collection – chicken harvesters, which remove the remaining boxes on the bushes.

Fallen raw cotton after the first and second harvests is picked up from the ground by mechanical pick-ups ПХ-2.4 (at 60 cm row spacing) or ПХС-3.6 (at 90 cm row spacing).

Raw cotton is unloaded from the bins of cotton pickers into bulk vehicles and delivered to the procurement point. Before being sent to the procurement point, raw cotton must be dried to a moisture content of 8-12% and cleaned.

Manual harvesting of raw cotton is carried out in four (in some cases up to eight) receptions on fields clean from weeds. The first collection is started when the plant has an average of 3-4 well-opened bolls. At the second harvest, the selection of raw cotton from well-opened bolls is completed until the end of the growing season of cotton plants. When carrying out the first and second collections, the selection of unripe raw cotton from incompletely opened bolls or the collection of raw cotton in case of heavy dew in the fields is not allowed.

At the third and fourth collections, the raw cotton remaining on the bushes is sampled.

Hand-picked raw cotton, depending on the strength of the fiber, is divided into four grades.

The mechanized method of picking raw cotton compared to manual picking makes it possible to reduce labor costs by 3-4 times and to reduce the cost of raw cotton by 2 times.

Harvesting of stalks (guza-pan) of cotton after harvesting all the cotton is carried out by rooters КВ-4А and КВ-3.6А.

The use of industrial technologies, for example, at the state farm. The five-year plan of Uzbekistan made it possible to reduce labor costs to 459 man-hours per hectare, which is 2 times less than the average for other farms. The yield of raw cotton at the same time reached 4 t/ha, production costs – 11.5 man-hours/100 kg, which is 3 times less than in other farms.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Clary sage

Clary sage (Salvia sclarea) is an essential oil crop. It has been cultivated in Russia for a very long time.


Economic importance

The essential oil of sage is contained in its inflorescences (0.35%). It is used in perfumery, food industry and winemaking.

Cultivation areas and yield

In Russia, clary sage is grown in the Crimea and the Krasnodar Territory. From the former republics of the USSR – in Moldova.

The sown area in 1984 throughout the USSR was approximately 13 thousand hectares.

The yield of inflorescences reaches 3.0-4.0 t/ha.

Botanical description

Clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family.

Taproot, well developed.

Stem branched, tetrahedral.

Plant height 100-120 cm.

The leaves are opposite, large, ovate, wrinkled, the edges are notched-toothed.

Inflorescence paniculate-branched, located at the ends of the branches. Corolla of flowers pink, lilac or white.

The fruit is dry, consists of four nuts with a smooth surface. Nuts contain a drying fatty oil.

Biological features

Clary sage is considered a culture that is not very demanding on heat and moisture.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 10-12 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -6 °C. With sufficient snow cover, it can tolerate frosts down to -30 °C.

Mature plants tolerate drought well.

Light-loving plant. Shading leads to poor plant growth, and yields are greatly reduced.

Fertile chernozem soils are considered optimal.

Vegetation and reproduction

In the first year of life, clary sage forms a rosette of basal leaves. In the second year, densely leafy stems form in the plants, inflorescences and fruits appear.

Crop rotation

In the crop rotation, special areas are allocated for sage, which are not included in the rotation and where it is cultivated for 2-3 years.

Winter crops are considered the best predecessor for spring crops. When sowing at other times, it is usually placed after mid-season spring crops.

Fertilizer system

Clary sage responds well to fertilizer application.

The recommended application rate of manure is 20 t/ha, full mineral fertilizer is N30P40-60K40.

Tillage system

When placing sage after winter crops and during spring sowing, tillage includes autumn and spring tillage.


Sowing sage can be carried out in spring or before winter, but in such a way that its seeds do not have time to germinate before the onset of cold weather.

Usually, a wide-row sowing method is used with a row spacing of 45 cm.

According to the data of the Voznesenskaya Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Essential Oil Crops, good results are obtained by the usual row sowing method with row spacing of 15 cm.

Seeding rate:

  • with wide-row sowing – 7 kg/ha;
  • with the usual ordinary – 12 kg / ha.

Seeding depth on cohesive soils is 2-3 cm, on loose soils – 4-5 cm.

Crop care

Care of crops of clary sage consists in harrowing by seedlings and during the growing season 3-4 inter-row tillage.


Harvesting sage is started when the content in the inflorescences is not less than 0.12% of essential oil. To control the content of essential oil from the moment of flowering, laboratory analyzes of samples are carried out daily.

The beginning of the browning of the seeds of the lower fruits of the inflorescences is considered the optimal harvesting time.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).


Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is an essential oil and medicinal crop.


Economic importance

Mint is grown to produce leaves that contain (1.5) 2.0-3.5% essential oil. Peppermint essential oil is used in medicine, perfumery and confectionery.

Essential oil promotes the expansion of blood vessels of the heart, lungs and brain, is used as a wound healing, choleretic, analgesic and sedative. A mixture of menthol and oil has anti-inflammatory properties and is used for colds.

The main component of the essential oil is menthol, the content of which reaches 50-70%.

Cultivation areas and yield

Peppermint was introduced into cultivation about 250-300 years ago.

In Russia, mint was brought from England and began to be cultivated in the 19th century.

It is grown as a cultivated plant in small areas in Western Europe, Asia (China, Korea, Japan) and the USA.

The main crop areas on the territory of the former USSR are located in the Krasnodar Territory and North Ossetia of Russia, the forest-steppe part of Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and the Baltic countries.

In 1984, the sown area in the USSR was about 9 thousand hectares.

The yield of dried peppermint leaves reaches 0.8-1.0 t/ha (Vavilov). According to other data, the average yield is 1.5-2.0 t/ha, in favorable conditions it reaches 3.5 t/ha.

Botanical description

Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a perennial rhizomatous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family.

The rhizome lies in the soil at a depth of 5-6 cm.

Stems erect, branched.

Plant height 50-80 cm.

The leaves are opposite, small, oval-lanceolate, serrated along the edges. On the underside of the plastic sheet, along the veins, there are numerous glands in which essential oil is formed.

The flowers are mostly female, small, pinkish, collected in groups in loose spike-shaped inflorescences. Flowering occurs profusely, but seeds are almost not formed.

Biological features

Peppermint is undemanding to heat.

Able to overwinter well with little snow cover without shelter.

The buds on the rhizomes begin to grow at a soil temperature of 2-3 °C. Young shoots of mint are able to tolerate frosts down to -6 °C. It does not tolerate sharp fluctuations in temperature from the end of winter to early spring, which is associated with the beginning of the germination of rhizomes.

Moisture-loving plant. The optimal soil moisture, at which the above-ground mass develops most intensively, is 80% of the lowest soil moisture capacity. Does not tolerate prolonged drought.

Peppermint is demanding on light: when shaded, the oil content in the leaves decreases.

The best soils are low-lying fertile sandy loamy or light loamy chernozems and drained cultivated peatlands. It grows poorly on heavy, alkaline, sandy and acidic marsh soils.

Vegetation and reproduction

Reproduction is vegetative by means of rhizomes and shoots.

Seedlings are harvested from young shoots, which are formed from overwintered lashes and rhizomes in spring. For these purposes, segments of rhizomes with 3-4 knots are better suited than parts of lashes. Planting material harvested in autumn is usually stored in special piles. The pile is a dug trench 1 m wide and 50-60 cm deep. The rhizomes in the pile are laid in layers of 5 cm and sprinkled with soil. From above they fall asleep with a layer of soil 20-30 cm thick. The optimum storage temperature in piles and storages is +1 … +3 °С.

Sometimes the rhizomes are not dug up, and the field of mother plants of mint is covered with straw manure or other insulating materials.

Crop rotation

In the crop rotation, fertilized tilled crops (potatoes, sugar beet), as well as winter crops, going along fertilized fallows and along the turnover of the layer of perennial grasses, are considered the best predecessors of mint.

With good care, peppermint can be grown in one place for 2-3 years.

Fertilizer system

Peppermint is responsive to organic and mineral fertilizers.

The recommended application rate for manure is 15-20 t/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, 30-50 t/ha of manure or compost, Kolomeichenko), directly under mint.

Recommended application rates for mineral fertilizers N90P60K90. (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, when combined with organic fertilizers – N45P45K45, in the absence of organic fertilizers – N60-90P60-90K60-90, Kolomeichenko).

Manure and part of the mineral fertilizers are applied as the main fertilizer in the fall, the rest of the mineral fertilizers are applied before cultivation, when planting rhizomes and as top dressing.

Peppermint responds well to ammonium nitrate, ash and bird droppings.

Recommended fertilizer application rates for feeding seedlings: 100 kg of ammonium sulfate, 150 kg of superphosphate, 50 kg of potassium salt or 5 tons of diluted slurry, 200-300 kg of chicken manure per 1 ha. The first top dressing is carried out immediately after the start of the seedling vegetation, the second – after 20-25 days.

After harvesting the leaves, mineral fertilizers are applied in the amount of N90P120K90 with embedding them with harrows.

Tillage system

An important agricultural technique is considered to be snow retention, which is carried out with the help of rocker crops.


Peppermint is planted with rhizomes in early spring, simultaneously with the sowing of early spring crops. In the conditions of Moldova and the Krasnodar Territory with relatively mild winters and high soil moisture in autumn, planting of rhizomes can be carried out in autumn – at the end of October – the first half of November.

The best planting method is with row spacing of 70 cm. When planting, the rhizomes are laid in a continuous tape in moist soil, the grooves are immediately covered with soil.

Planting is carried out by transplanting machines adapted for planting rhizomes, or manually.

The planting rate of rhizomes is 800-1000 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, 500-600 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko).

Planting depth in spring (6) 7-8 cm, in autumn – 10-12 cm.

As planting material, seedlings from young shoots can be used, which are bred in the spring in a nursery from overwintered lashes and rhizomes. The shoots of seedlings are dug out of the nursery and immediately planted with watering in a wide-row way (70 cm), in a row the distance between plants should be 12-15 cm.

Planting of seedlings in the southern regions begins in April, in Ukraine – in early May, with a plant height of 8-10 cm at the rate of 8-10 plants per 1 m of row. Plant density should be at least 130 thousand/ha.

Crop care

Full shoots when planting rhizomes occur in 28-30 days.

Before germination, harrowing is carried out with light or medium harrows across the rows.

During the growing season, 2-3 (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, up to 4-5 during the summer, Kolomeichenko) processing of row spacings are carried out. The first inter-row cultivation is carried out when shoots appear, leaving protective strips 15-20 m wide. Subsequent treatments are carried out as necessary with weeding.

In plantings of the second and third years, if necessary, segments of rhizomes or rooted shoots are planted.

When leaving the plantation for the second and third years, after harvesting the second cut, to ensure good development of rhizomes, row spacing is cultivated to a depth of 6-8 cm. Autumn mulching with manure at the rate of 20-30 t/ha gives a good result.


Peppermint leaves are harvested during the first, second and third years of life. Maximum productivity is noted in the second year of plant life.

Harvesting is started in the phase of technical ripeness. In plants of the first year of cultivation, it occurs when 50% of plants bloom (Vavilov; according to other recommendations, in the full flowering phase, Kolomeychenko) or at the end of July, the second and third years – with mass budding or at the end of June.

Mowing is carried out by hay mowers, legume mowers and bean harvesters, for example, ЖБА-3.5А.

The mowed mass is left in the field for 1-2 days, the moisture content of the mass should reach at least 30%. After drying, it is picked up with the help of pick-up loaders, collected in vehicles and sent for processing.

The developed technology for harvesting and processing mint with whole dried plants in container cubes provides for:

  • mowing plants and laying them in swaths using ЖБА-3.5L, ЖБА-4.2 harvesters, Е-301 mowers;
  • drying of green mass within 1-2 days;
  • selection of rolls with simultaneous grinding of dried mass and loading into
  • processing machines of the КУФ-1.8 type; Е-280;
  • transportation of raw materials to the place of processing.

Cultivation under irrigation conditions

Peppermint is responsive to watering. Under irrigation conditions (during the Soviet period), it was grown in the Kuban, Moldova and southern Ukraine, which made it possible to obtain up to two crops of essential oil raw materials per year. The collection of essential oil reached 60-90 kg/ha compared to 20-30 kg/ha in the absence of irrigation.

Irrigation is started when the soil moisture is 70-75% of the lowest moisture capacity. Watering is carried out using a sprinkler. Irrigation rate is 450-500 m 3 /ha. Watering is stopped two weeks before harvesting the leaves.

Continuous harvesting of mint rhizomes and thinning of transitional plantations is carried out using КПМ-2 root-thinner-thinners.

Mint rhizomes are stored in above-ground ridges. Shelter of the ridges with earth is carried out with a БН-100А bead-coverer with a thickness of the shelter of 10-15 cm. When a stable cooling occurs, that is, temperatures down to -8 … -10 °C, the thickness of the shelter is increased to 15-20 cm. The optimum storage temperature of rhizomes in the ridges is 0 …-4 °С.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.


Caraway (Carum carvi) is an essential oil crop.


Economic importance

The leaves, stems, and roots are used as food, although the seeds are the main product.

The caraway fruit contains 4-7% essential oil. The essential oil contains carvone, which is used as a flavoring agent for liqueurs, and limonene, used in perfumery; their combination gives caraway its characteristic aroma.

The fruits also yield 14-16% of the fatty oil which is used for technical purposes. The seeds are used as a spice, for baking and cheese-making.

A good honeybee.

The tuberous roots of caraway are edible and are somewhat popular, especially in China.


Caraway seems to have originated in Asia Minor.

Caraway has been found in Middle East Asia and dates back to the 3rd millennium B.C. This plant was well known to the ancient Egyptians. It was introduced to Europe from North Africa about 1,000 years ago. Naturalization occurred mainly in Northern Europe and North America, and crop improvement was focused on increasing seed size and essential oil content.

Cultivation areas and yield

Caraway production is significant in Northern Europe, namely in the Netherlands, Canada, the United States, Scandinavia, Russia, and other temperate countries.

Small areas of caraway cultivation during the USSR were in the Khmelnytsky and Lviv regions of Ukraine.

On the territory of Russia, as an agricultural crop is grown in the Non-Black Earth and Central Black Earth zones.

The average seed yield is 0.6-0.8 t/ha.


Botanical description

Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a biennial plant, usually cultivated as an annual, belonging to the Celery family (Apiaсеае). Propagated by seeds.

The root is large rod-shaped, tuberous, relatively fleshy, parsnip-like, yellow with a white interior, up to 20 cm long.

Stem is hollow, erect, branched, glabrous, hollow, furrowed.

Plant height 50-70 (90) cm.

Leaves are alternate, compound, tri-pinnatipartite dissected.

The inflorescence is a complex flattened umbrella with numerous ray pedicels of unequal length. Flowers are arranged on long pedicels, small, white, yellowish or pinkish-white.

The fruit is a double seed, consisting of two one-seeded fruits. There are ten longitudinal ribs on the surface of the fruit, which contain tubules with essential oil. The seeds are fragrant, easily crumbling, oblong and sickle-shaped, ribbed, dark brown, about 5 mm long, with a pentagonal cross section. Weight of 1000 seeds is 2.3-2.5 g, also reported: about 300-350 pieces weigh 1 g.

Biological features

Caraway is an undemanding crop for heat.

It has high requirements for moisture and soil. Fertile soils and sufficient moisture are optimal for it but caraway cannot tolerate too wet soils.

It is a light-loving plant.



In the first year of life, the caraway plant develops a root and a rosette of leaves. Fruiting occurs in the second year.

Excessive overgrowth of the above-ground part is not recommended because it reduces the yield of the seeds.


Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter cereals are considered the best predecessors of caraway, coming after the steam in which the manure was applied, leguminous crops.


Fertilizer system

Caraway responds well to fertilizers.

N45-60P45-60K45-60 is applied as the main fertilizer .

When sowing, granular superphosphate is applied at the rate of 10 kg/ha P2O5.

When a rosette of leaves is formed, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers in the calculation of NP at 10-15 kg/ha.


Tillage system

Soil cultivation for caraway includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm (after winter crops, peeling is carried out before plowing);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.


Start sowing caraway early in the spring.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 45 cm.

The seeding rate is 10-12 kg/ha.

Seeding depth 2 cm.


Crop care

Crop care includes: loosening row spacing to break the soil crust and kill weeds.

In the first year of plant life, light hilling is carried out in autumn to protect them from freezing.

In the second year of life in early spring, harrowing is carried out across the rows.


Harvesting of caraway seeds is started when 60% of the fruits are browned.

The cleaning method is single-phase. It is carried out by grain combines.

For storage lay seeds with a moisture content of not more than 12%.



Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.


Anise (ganus) (Pimpinella anisum) is an essential oil crop. Also applies to medicinal and spicy plants.

Economic importance

Anise is an ancient aromatic plant used mainly for flavoring; both leaves and seeds are used for this purpose.

Anise seeds contain 1.5-4% essential oil and (16) 18-22% fat.

The composition of the essential oil includes anethole (up to 80%), which is widely used in the perfumery, pharmaceutical and food (alcoholic beverage and confectionery) industries. Fatty oil finds application in paint and varnish production and soap production. Anise essential oil for medical purposes is used to treat the stomach, with colds as an expectorant. Included in the composition of medical fees (teas).

Anise seeds are used in baking, for the production of canned food and confectionery.

Anise seed cake serves as a valuable concentrated feed for cattle, pigs and poultry. 100 kg of cake correspond to 85 feed units.

Good honey plant.

Anise is often confused with Florentine fennel, because they have a similar smell and taste, as well as with star anise (Illicium verum), which is sometimes used as a substitute for anise.

Crop history

Anise is thought to be native to Asia Minor, although some botanists point to Egypt as the center of origin.

It began to be cultivated before Christ in Egypt, Greece and Rome. Anise seeds were a source of flavoring for ancient Rome.

In Russia, this culture began to grow in the 30s of the XIX century.


Cultivation areas and yield

Anise is grown in many countries in Asia (India, China) and Europe (Balkan countries, Germany, France, Netherlands, Turkey, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia), but the cultivation area is relatively small. It is also grown in America (Mexico).

In 1986, the sown area under this crop in the USSR was about 2 thousand hectares.

The main areas of cultivation are the Voronezh, Belgorod and Kursk regions. In small quantities, it is also sown in the forest-steppe part of Ukraine.

The yield of anise seeds is usually 0.8-1.0 t/ha.

Ongoing breeding has made it possible to increase the seed yield and the content of aromatic compounds.

Botanical description

Anise or common anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is an annual plant belonging to the Umbrella or Celery family (Apiaceae). In warm climates it is considered a perennial.

The root is long, tapering, well developed and deeply penetrating.

The stem is erect, furrowed, round, covered with many fine hairs, branched at the top, the main stem is hollow.

The plant height is 40-60 (75) cm.

The lower root leaves are simple, broad and pinnate, resembling those of flatleaf parsley, with long petioles. Leaves are alternate. Lower leaves are rounded or kidney-shaped, on long petioles. Middle leaves are pinnate or tripartite-compound, dentate, with shorter petioles. Upper ones are compound, strongly dissected into linear, narrow lobes, without petioles (sessile). Overall, the light green leaves have a feathery lace-like appearance.

The inflorescence is a complex, loose umbrella. Flowers are small, white or yellowish-white.

Fruit is ovoid, flattened-ovoid or pear-shaped double-seeded, consisting of two one-seeded, unbranched, greenish-gray fruits. The surface has short adpressed hairs, with many longitudinal ribs, which contain tubules of essential oil. The taste of the fruit is sweet-spicy. Weight of 1,000 seeds 3.5-4 g.

Seeds are flat-ovoid, gray-brown, ribbed, with superficial hairs, 3-5 mm in length and 1-2 mm in width. Seeds usually germinate slowly.

Biological features

Anise is considered to be demanding to heat.

Seeds begin to germinate slowly at a temperature of 4-5°C. The optimal germination temperature is over 10-20°C.

The optimal temperature for the growth and development of anise is 24-25 ° C.

The greatest need for heat occurs during the period from the beginning of flowering to seed ripening.

Seeds require 120% moisture of their weight for swelling.

Uniform soil moisture is required for high yields. The greatest need for water is during flowering and seed formation.

Light-loving plant.

Demanding to the soil. Fertile, weed-free black earth is optimal.


The vegetation period of anise is 120-130 days.

The following phases of growth and development are noted:

  • seedlings;
  • socket;
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter cereal and tilled crops are considered to be the best predecessors of anise.

Bad predecessors are coriander, which clogs subsequent crops with carrion.

Fertilizer system

Anise responds well to fertilization.

N45-60P45-60K45-60 (Vavilov) is applied as the main fertilizer. According to other recommendations, N45P60K30 (Kolomeichenko). Also, N60-80P60-80K60-80 (Niklyaev).

When sowing, granular superphosphate is applied at the rate of 10 kg/ha P2O5.

When a rosette of leaves is formed, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers in the calculation of NP at 10-15 kg/ha (Vavilov). According to other recommendations, N20.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for anise includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm (after winter crops, peeling is carried out before plowing);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.


Before sowing, air-heat treatment of seeds is carried out for 2-3 days.

Sowing begins simultaneously with the sowing of early grain crops (or simultaneously with coriander).

Usually, a wide-row sowing method is used with row spacing of 45 cm or a two-row belt method with a distance between ribbons of 45 cm, in ribbons between rows, a distance of 15 cm (45x15x15 cm). On weed-free fields, the usual row method can be used.

You can also use the scheme: between plants – 25 cm, between rows – 50-75 cm.

Seeding rates:

  • for a wide-row sowing method – 12 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations 10-15 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko);
  • for two-line tape – 14 kg/ha;
  • for an ordinary soldier – 18 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other
  • recommendations 20-25 kg/ha, Kolomeichenko).

Sowing depth 2-3 cm, in case of drying of the soil – 4-5 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes: pre-emergence harrowing using light harrows across the rows and at least three inter-row tillage.


Seed ripening in anise is uneven. Delay in cleaning leads to shedding.

Anise harvesting can be performed in a single-phase and two-phase method.

Single-phase harvesting is used in unstable weather, on sparse and fallen crops. In this case, harvesting begins at the beginning of the full ripeness of the seeds.

Two-phase harvesting is used in fields with normal plant density. They start when the seeds acquire a greenish-gray color (or when the fruits of medium umbrellas become grayish).

After threshing, if necessary, the seeds are dried. For storage lay seeds with a moisture content of not more than 12%.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Carrots and related vegetable Umbelliferae / V.E. Rubatzky, C.F. Quires, and P.W. Simon. USA. 1999.

World vegetables: principles, production, and nutritive values / Vincent E. Rubatzky and Mas Yamaguchi. — 2nd ed. 1997.


Coriander is a valuable essential oil crop. It can also be attributed to spicy, vegetable and medicinal plants.

Economic importance

Coriander, as an essential oil plant, is grown to obtain fruits that contain from 0.2 to 1.2% essential oil (Vavilov; according to other sources, 1.4-2.1%). The chemical composition of coriander essential oil includes linalool (60-70%, has the smell of lily of the valley), decylaldehyde, terpenes and other valuable compounds.

Coriander oil is used in the perfume industry to obtain aromatic substances with the smell of violet, lily, lemon, rose, lily of the valley, etc. The essential oil has medicinal properties: analgesic, antiseptic, choleretic, anti-hemorrhoid and wound healing properties and promotes the secretion of the glands of the digestive system.

The fruits also contain 18-22% fatty oil, with a large proportion of oleic acid glycerides. It is used in the manufacture of soap, in the textile and printing industries.

Coriander seeds are used in the food industry (bakery, confectionery and brewing), in medicine. The fruits and the above-ground vegetative part have choleretic, laxative, anti-hemorrhoid properties and are part of the medicinal preparations (teas).

Meal obtained after distillation or extraction of essential and fatty oils from fruits is used for feed purposes and is a good concentrated feed for farm animals. 100 kg of meal correspond to 69 feed units. Cake from coriander seeds contains approximately 17% protein, 7% fat, 30% nitrogen-free extractives, 8% ash.

Leaves in the countries of the Caucasus and the East serve as a seasoning for dishes.

Coriander is a honey plant.

Crop history

Coriander has been cultivated since ancient times. Homeland is the Mediterranean region.

It was grown in Asia, Africa, Europe and America.

It was brought to Russia from Spain in 1830.

Cultivation areas and yield

In 1986, more than 140 thousand hectares were occupied under coriander crops in the USSR.

A third of the crops of this crop in Russia falls on the Voronezh, Kursk and Belgorod regions. It is cultivated in Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Rostov regions, Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, in North Ossetia. Also grown in Kazakhstan and Ukraine (Kirovograd region). Probably can be grown in more northern regions.

The average yield of coriander seeds is 0.5-1.2 t/ha. Under favorable conditions, with a high level of agricultural technology, it can produce 2.0-2.5 t/ha.

Botanical description

Coriander, sometimes colandra, Coriandrum sativum L. is an annual plant belonging to the Celery family (Apiaceae).

Taproot, well developed.

The stem is branched above.

Plants 50-100 cm high.

The leaves are alternate. Lower leaves on long petioles, pinnate. The middle leaves are double-pinnate. The upper ones are strongly dissected into narrow-linear lobes.

The inflorescence is a complex umbrella. The flowers are white, pale pink, yellow, small, quintuple type. Ovary two-celled, inferior. Cross-pollination by insects.

The fruit is a spherical yellow-brown two-seeded, consisting of two single-seeded, indehiscent fruitlets. Essential oil accumulates in special tubules, which are located on the inside of both fruitlets. Weight of 1000 seeds 7-10 g.

The plant has a sharp bug smell, especially strong in the flowering phase. When ripe, this smell disappears and the fruits acquire a spicy taste and a characteristic smell.

Biological features

Coriander is considered not too demanding on heat.

Seed germination begins at 6-8 °C. However, at such temperatures, seedlings appear only 20-25 days after sowing. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -7 … -8 (-10) ° С. Plants need the most heat during the flowering and maturation phases.

Coriander is a drought-resistant plant, but makes high demands on moisture supply. It is most sensitive to moisture supply during the period of increased growth of the vegetative mass and in the flowering phase.

Light-loving plant.

Fertile chernozems are optimal. Heavy clay and marshy soils are unsuitable. It also produces poor yields on chalk slopes, sandy loamy, alkaline and acidic soils.


At the beginning of development, the growth of coriander is slow, and the plants are easily oppressed by weeds. Intensive growth of the stem begins after the formation of 7-9 leaves.

Flowering and ripening is unfriendly.

The growing season is 90-110 days.

There are the following phases of growth and development:

  • seedlings;
  • socket;
  • shooting;
  • bloom;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, winter and early cereal crops, legumes, corn, potatoes are considered the best predecessors of coriander.

Poor predecessors are late-harvested crops (sunflower, sugar beet, Sudanese grass, etc.), since they take a large amount of nutrients and moisture out of the soil.

Coriander can serve as a precursor of spring and winter grain crops, in the southern regions – sunflower.

Coriander is returned to its former place of crop rotation no earlier than after
4-5 years.

Fertilizer system

Coriander plants consume nutrients unevenly during the growing season. The maximum consumption falls on the flowering phase. The lack of nutrients in the soil, as well as moisture, during this period leads to a decrease in yield.

Coriander responds well to fertilization.

Organic fertilizers are recommended to be applied under the previous crop at the rate of 20 t/ha of manure.

Mineral fertilizers are applied directly under the crop: NPK is applied in the amount of 45-60 kg/ha (Vavilov; according to other recommendations 65-80 kg/ha, Niklyaev) before the pre-sowing tillage, phosphorus is applied in the rows during sowing 10-15 kg/ha. In the phase of 4-5 leaves, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are also fertilized at a rate of 20 kg/ha.

The effectiveness of potash fertilizers for coriander is considered very low. Therefore, on ordinary and carbonate chernozems, as well as on chestnut soils, it is sufficient to apply N60P60. For leached chernozem and dark gray forest soils, it is recommended to apply N60P60K60.

Tillage system

Soil cultivation for coriander includes:

  • autumn plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm; if coriander is placed after cereals, then peeling is carried out before plowing;
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation with harrowing.

In the southern regions, with severe clogging of fields, the second plowing of the soil is carried out to a depth of 10-12 cm after the emergence of weeds.

On clean and slightly compacted soils, only pre-sowing harrowing can be carried out. Whereas on compacted soils, pre-sowing cultivation is required to a depth of 5-6 cm.


For sowing use large and leveled seeds. A good effect is given by air-thermal (solar) treatment for 3-4 days.

Before sowing, the seeds are treated with an 80% solution of TMTD at the rate of 4 kg of the drug per 1 ton of seeds.

Sowing begins in early spring, in the first days of field work.

The sowing method is wide-row with row spacing of 45 cm. It is usually carried out with beet seeders. The usual row sowing method can also be used, provided the fields are clean from weeds.

The seeding rate for the wide-row method is (12) 13-15 (16) kg ha, for the usual row method – 20-22 kg/ha.

The depth of seed placement is 2-4 cm (Vavilov). According to other sources, the sowing depth is 4-5 cm (Kolomeichenko).

After sowing, the soil is rolled.

Crop care

4-5 days after sowing, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out. After pecking the seeds, a second harrowing is additionally carried out.

Care for coriander crops after germination consists of harrowing and 2-3 inter-row tillage.

Good effect gives additional bee pollination during flowering.


Coriander fruits do not ripen at the same time. Ripe fruits easily crumble, which, under adverse weather conditions, leads to large crop losses, as well as carrion in subsequent crops. Harvesting late leads to an increase in fatty oil content, while the essential oil content decreases.

It is recommended to use a two-phase method for cleaning. In this case, harvesting starts when (30) 40% of the fruits are brown and ends when 80% of the fruits are brown. For mowing coriander, it is better to use wide-cut headers with a cutting height of 15-20 cm. The width of a double swath should not exceed 2 m. Picking and threshing of swaths begins when the fruit moisture reaches 15-16%, usually the period occurs 5-6 days after mowing. For the selection and threshing of rolls, a grain combine is used, for example, “Niva”, “Kolos”, at a reduced speed of the threshing drum (500-600 rpm).

The heap from under the combine is cleaned with the help of heap-cleaning machines. The fruits are sorted using a grain cleaning machine ОС-4.5А.

Seeds are stored for storage when the moisture content of the seeds is not more than 12%.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.

Essential oil crops

Essential oil crops – agricultural crops, in seeds, inflorescences, leaves, stems and other plant organs that contain volatile aromatic substances – essential oils.

Essential oil crops include:


Essential oils are a mixture of organic compounds: carbohydrates, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, organic acids and other complex organic substances. Most essential oils are present in the chemical composition of plants in a free form.

The content of essential oils in plants of essential oil crops varies over a very wide range: from thousandths of a percent to 22%. The content of essential oils also varies within plants of the same species, but much less, and depends on the soil and climatic conditions of cultivation, age, phase of plant development and other conditions. For example, in a warm and dry climate, plants accumulate more essential oils than in a cold and humid one. As a rule, the highest content of essential oils in plants falls on the phase of flowering and seed ripening.

In Russia and the countries of the former USSR, approximately 30 species of essential oil plants are cultivated, most of which belong to the Celery ( Umbelliferae ) or Lamiaceae ( Labiatae ) family.

The sown area occupied by essential oil crops in the USSR in 1984 was more than 180 thousand hectares.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.


Lallemancia iberica is an annual oilseed crop in the Labiatae family. Lallemancia oil is used for technical purposes.


Economic importance

The oil content in the seeds of lallemancia is 23-38%. Lallemancia oil is a fast drying oil, used in the paint and varnish industry and in the production of drying oil. Its technical qualities are similar to perilla oil.

Refined lallemancia oil is suitable for consumption.

The cake is used for feed purposes.


Cultivation areas and yield

Lallemancia has long been cultivated in the countries of Asia Minor.

In Russia, this crop is grown in small areas, mainly in the Rostov Region, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories.

Seed yield reaches 1.0-1.2 t/ha.


Botanical description

Lallemancia (Lallemancia iberica F. et M.) is an annual plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Labiatae).

Taproot, well developed.

Stem erect, tetrahedral, branched. Plant height 60-70 cm.

The leaves are opposite, oblong, entire. The lower leaves are on short petioles, the upper ones are almost sessile.

Flowers are collected 5-8 in false whorls. Corolla two-lipped, white, pink or blue. Self-pollination predominates, cross-pollination by insects is possible.

The fruit consists of four small nuts (seeds).

Seeds are small, oblong, 4-5 mm long, dark brown or dark purple, with a double scar at the base. The mass of 1000 seeds is 4-5 g.

A feature of lallemancia is the weak shedding of ripened seeds in dry weather and, conversely, strong shedding in wet weather. This property is explained by the fact that in dry weather, the edges of the calyx of the fruit are bent inward, thereby preventing the seeds from spilling out, while in wet weather they diverge and the seeds spill out freely.


Biological features

Lallemancia is not demanding on heat and moisture.

Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 3-5 °C. Seedlings are able to withstand frosts down to -6 °C.

Drought tolerant plant.

A shorter day leads to a slower ripening.

Lallemancia can be cultivated on various soils. The most optimal are black earth, on which it gives the highest yields.



The growing season is about 80 days. In dry years, it can be reduced to 65-67 days.

Crop rotation

In crop rotation, the best predecessors for Lallemancia are winter wheat and row crops.

Lallemancia itself, thanks to its short growing season, is a good precursor for winter crops.


Fertilizer system

Lallemancia responds well to the application of mineral fertilizers. The recommended fertilizer application rates are N45P45K45.


Tillage system

Tillage for lallemancia includes:

  • autumn plowing (with preliminary peeling after grain crops);
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • pre-sowing cultivation followed by harrowing.


Lallemancia seeds before sowing are treated with a 65% solution of fentiuram at the rate of 3 kg of the drug per 1 ton of seeds.

Sowing starts early.

The sowing method is ordinary or wide-row with a row spacing of 45 cm.

The seeding rate for the usual row method is 18-20 kg/ha, for the inter-row method – 8-10 kg/ha.

Sowing depth 2-3 cm.


Crop care

Crop care includes harrowing after germination. On wide-row crops, 3-4 inter-row tillage is also carried out.


The harvesting is started when a dark color appears in the seeds
in whorls located on the lower part of the stems.

The single-phase method of harvesting with converted combine harvesters at a low cut is more preferable.

Seeds with a moisture content of not more than 10% are laid for storage.



Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).


Perilla frutescens, or sudza, is an oilseed crop, sometimes used as a succulent vegetable crop, in the Lamiaceae or Labiatae family.

Other names: shiso, beefsteak plant.

Economic importance

Perilla is an annual aromatic herb widely cultivated in East Asia and Japan for its leaves and edible seed oil. It is native to Southeast Asia, but is now widely domesticated.

Perilla seeds contain 40-45% fast drying technical oil. Perilla oil is used in the automotive, shipbuilding, electrical, paint and varnish industries.

Perilla cake serves as a concentrated feed for farm animals.

Cultivation areas and yield

Perilla is grown in China, Korea and Japan.

In Russia, it is grown in small areas in the Primorsky Territory.

Seed yield reaches 1.0-1.2 t/ha.

Botanical description

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (syn. Perilla ocymoides L., Ocimum frutescens) is an annual plant of the Labiatae family.

The root penetrates to a depth of 1 m.

The stem is erect, branched, tetrahedral. Plant height is 0.9-1.5 m.

Leaves are broadly ovate, up to 12 cm long, serrated edges, on long petioles, usually brownish-purple or bronze in color or may be mottled; some varieties are green. The leaves are valued for their curry-like aroma.

Inflorescence – brush. The flowers are small. The corolla is double-lipped. 4 stamens. The ovary is four-celled. Self-pollinator, also cross-pollinated by insects.

The fruit breaks up into 4 small round nuts, with a mesh surface. The weight of 1000 seeds is 2-3.5 g.

Biological features

Perilla is demanding on growing conditions.

The minimum temperature for seed germination is 7-8 °C, the optimum temperature is 10-12 °C. Plants are able to withstand frosts down to -1 … -2 °С. Adult plants do not tolerate low autumn temperatures well.

High temperatures in the flowering and seeding phases lead to flower drop, incomplete seeding, which reduces the yield.

Moisture-loving plant. The greatest need for moisture falls on the flowering phase.

Perilla is a short daylight plant. Favorable low light intensity.

Structural chernozem and alluvial soils of river valleys are optimal.


The development of perilla plants from germination to the beginning of branching of the stem proceeds slowly, then growth accelerates sharply.

The growing season is 120-150 days. With the advancement of crops to the north, the duration of the growing season is lengthened.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of perilla in crop rotation are winter cereals, row crops and legumes.

Fertilizer system

Perilla responds well to fertilization.

The use of manure at the rate of 30 tons per 1 ha leads to an increase in yield up to 2 times.

Approximate recommended application rates of mineral fertilizers – N45P60K40 kg/ha.

Tillage system

Tillage for the railing should be carried out carefully and includes:

  • early spring plowing;
  • at least two cultivations followed by harrowing;
  • pre-sowing soil compaction.


Seeds with a purity of at least 95% and a germination rate of at least 75% are suitable for sowing. Additionally, they are treated with a 65% solution of fentiuram at the rate of 3 kg of the drug per 1 ton of seeds.

Sowing perilla is carried out when the topsoil is warmed up to 12 °C.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 60 cm.

Seeding rate – 5-8 kg/ha.

The depth of sowing seeds is 3-4 cm.

Crop care

Crop care includes harrowing, which is carried out at the beginning of germination, and 3-4 inter-row treatments.


When ripe, perilla seeds crumble heavily.

Harvesting is started before the seeds begin to ripen, when about 20% of the seeds acquire a characteristic color.

Cleaning is usually carried out in a two-phase way.

Seeds with a moisture content of not more than 9% are laid for storage.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

World vegetables: principles, production, and nutritive values / Vincent E. Rubatzky and Mas Yamaguchi. — 2nd ed. 1997.


Sesame (Sesamum) is an oilseed crop.

Economic importance

Sesame ranks first among oilseeds in terms of oil content. Its seeds contain 50-65% oil, 16-19% protein and 16-18% soluble carbohydrates. The iodine number of sesame oil is 103-112.

Sesame, or sesame, oil, which is obtained by cold pressing, is characterized by high taste and resembles olive (Provencal) oil. This oil has a light yellow color, excellent taste, no smell. It is used for food purposes, in the production of canned food and confectionery, as well as in medicine.

Sesame oil, obtained by hot pressing, is used for technical purposes.

Sesame seeds are used in the confectionery industry, for example, for the manufacture of sweets and oriental sweets, and halva is prepared from peeled and ground seeds.

The cake obtained by the cold pressing process contains 8% oil and approximately 40% protein. It also finds application in the confectionery industry. Cake obtained by hot pressing is used as a good concentrated feed for farm animals. 100 kg of cake correspond to 132 feed units.

Crop history

Sesame is considered an ancient crop, the cultivation of which began in Asia and Africa. Homeland – Africa.

Sesame appeared in Russia at the end of the 17th century.

Cultivation areas and yield

The main producers of sesame are India, China, Burma, Pakistan, some African countries and southern Europe, Mexico.

The area of ​​crops occupied by sesame in the world at the end of the 20th century was 7 million hectares or 4% of the area occupied by oilseeds. The gross harvest of seeds was 2.5 million tons. The average yield was 0.4 t/ha.

From the countries of the former USSR, it is cultivated by the countries of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan) and Transcaucasia.

In Russia, small areas are occupied by this crop, mainly in the North Caucasus.

The yield of sesame seeds under conditions without irrigation is 1.0-1.2 t/ha, under irrigation 1.8-2.0 (3.0) t/ha.

Botanical description

Cultivated sesame, or Indian, Sesamum indicum L. is an annual plant belonging to the Sesame family (Pedaliaceae).


The root is taproot, penetrates the soil to a depth of 1 m.


The stem is erect, pubescent with soft hairs.

Plants 1.2-1.5 m high.


Leaves petiolate, alternate or opposite, pubescent. The shape of the leaves depends on the position on the stem and variety. In some varieties, the leaves are whole, the lower ones are large and wide, the plants decrease towards the top. In other varieties, the lower leaves are dissected, the upper ones are whole, narrow, lanceolate.


The flowers are of the five type, located in the axils of the leaves, 1-2, sitting on short legs.

Corolla white or pink to purple. Calyx and corolla pubescent.

Plants are self-pollinating, cross-pollination by bees is possible.


The fruit is an elongated pubescent capsule, consists of two or four carpels, 70-80 seeds. When ripe, the box cracks.

One plant can form 100-150 bolls.


Seeds are small, flat, white, gray, brown or black.

The mass of 1000 seeds is 3-5 g.

Biological features

Sesame belongs to heat-loving plants.

Seeds begin to germinate at a soil temperature of 15-16 °C. Seedlings die during frosts of -0.5 … -1 °С. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of sesame seeds is 25-30 °C. When the temperature drops to 12-15 °C, plant growth stops.

Makes high demands on moisture and nutrients. Drought tolerant.

Chernozem, light loamy and sandy loamy fertile soils, free from weeds, are optimal.

Light-loving short day plant.


In the first month after germination, sesame plants develop slowly. Before the flowering phase comes a period of intensive growth.

The vegetation period of sesame depends on the variety and growing conditions and is (80) 90-120 days.

In sesame, the following phases of plant growth and development are distinguished:

  • seedlings;
  • first pair of true leaves;
  • budding;
  • bloom;
  • fruit formation;
  • seed maturation.

Crop rotation

The best predecessors of sesame in a crop rotation are winter wheat, corn, and legumes.

Fertilizer system

Sesame responds well to fertilizers.

The greatest increase in yield can be obtained by applying N90P90K90. Equally effective is the combined use of manure (10 t/ha) and complete mineral fertilizer N30P30K30 (Vavilov). According to other sources, it is not recommended to apply manure for sesame seeds in order to avoid the rapid development of the vegetative mass, it is advisable to apply it under the previous crop (Kolomeichenko). Also, the recommended application rates for mineral fertilizers are N45P45K45.

A good effect is given by row application when sowing granular superphosphate at the rate of 100 kg/ha.

Sesame belongs to crops with extended nutrient intake: plants consume approximately 67% of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the flowering phase and later. This is the reason for the high responsiveness of sesame to top dressing. During the formation of the second pair of true leaves, it is recommended to feed NPK in small quantities.

Tillage system

Sesame places high demands on tillage.

Soil cultivation for sesame includes:

  • autumn plowing with preliminary peeling;
  • harrowing in early spring;
  • at least two cultivations in the spring to a depth of 4-5 cm, followed by harrowing.

On non-irrigated lands, rolling is carried out before sowing.


Sesame sowing is started when the topsoil is sufficiently moist and warmed up to (15) 16-18 °C. When grown under irrigation conditions and with dry soil, pre-sowing watering is carried out before sowing.

The sowing method is wide-row with a row spacing of 45-70 cm.

Seeding rate (5) 6-8 kg/ha.

Sowing depth 2-3 cm.

After sowing, rolling is carried out.

Crop care

Care of crops consists in carrying out 3-4 inter-row treatments.

Under irrigation conditions, irrigation is carried out along the furrows 2 times: the first – during budding, the second – during the period of mass flowering of plants. Water consumption is (600) 700-800 (1000) m3/ha.


When ripe, sesame seeds crumble heavily.

Harvesting is started when the lower leaves turn yellow or fall off, the lower boxes on the plants turn brown, but do not open yet, and the seeds should have a normal color characteristic of the variety.

The two-phase cleaning method is more effective. When the boxes begin to
open, the seeds are shaken out of the sheaves 2-3 times by hand or threshed by self-propelled harvesters with a pick-up.

Sorted and cleaned seeds with a moisture content of not more than 9% are laid for storage.


Crop production / P.P. Vavilov, V.V. Gritsenko, V.S. Kuznetsov and others; Ed. P.P. Vavilov. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. – 512 p.: ill. – (Textbook and textbooks for higher educational institutions).

V.V. Kolomeichenko. Crop production / Textbook. — M.: Agrobusinesscenter, 2007. — 600 p. ISBN 978-5-902792-11-6.

Fundamentals of agricultural production technology. Agriculture and crop production. Ed. V.S. Niklyaev. – M .: “Epic”, 2000. – 555 p.